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NATURE’S MEDICINE CABINET . CHAPTER 9 BIODIVERSITY. Will the bark of an ordinary tree in Samoa become a cure for cancer?. Do Now. Why is biodiversity important? Be specific. What do we “get” from nature? Be specific. What W e G et From Nature. Nature’s Medical Cabinet.

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slide1

NATURE’S MEDICINE

CABINET

CHAPTER 9 BIODIVERSITY

Will the bark of an ordinary tree inSamoa become a cure for cancer?

do now
Do Now
  • Why is biodiversity important? Be specific.
  • What do we “get” from nature? Be specific
slide4

Nature’s Medical Cabinet

  • Medicinal plants provide health care and income to local communities
  • Medicinal plants worth $100 billion in 2011
  • 50% of all prescription drugs originally derivedfrom plants (e.g.; aspirin)
  • How many more are left to be discovered?
slide5

Ethnobotany

The study of how different cultures usethe plants in their local environment

“Mother Nature is the ultimate chemist.”

slide8

Biodiversity

A measure of all of the plant, animal& microbial species in an area or on Earth

slide9

How many species are there?

We don’t really know!

1.8 million species are known, but there could be ~100 millionstill to be discovered.

slide11

WHAT IS NATURE WORTH?

What would it cost to buy all of the

ecosystem services we get for freefrom nature?

minerals

oxygen

fossil fuels

water

Approximately

$33,000,000,000,000

climate control

biodiversity

erosion control

recreation (parks, etc.)

medicine

slide12

80% of Samoa’s tropical oasis of biodiversity and medical cures has been lost due to deforestation.

slide13

Endemism

Plants and animal species that exist onlyat one location on Earth

Biodiversity Hotspots

Regions that contain large numbersof endemic and threatened species.

slide15

Extirpation

  • When a species is extinct in one regionbut still present elsewhere
  • Reintroduction to the extinct regionis possible.
slide17

Endangered Species Act

The 1973 law protecting biodiversity inthe United States

slide18

How to Conserve Biodiversity

Single Species Approach

  • Focus is on well-known, charismatic species
  • Pandas, eagles, gray wolves
  • Has led to successful captive breeding programs
  • But, what about all the other species that need saving?

Ecosystem Approach

  • Focus is much broader target – entire ecosystems
  • Preserves all of the species and their interactions
  • Emphasis often on biodiversity hotspots
slide20

Debt-For-Nature Swap

Developing nation’s foreign debt paidby preserving its natural areas

slide21

Remember the Mamala tree?

  • Also produces prostratin
  • Effective in treating HIV
  • Has led to successful captive breeding programs
  • US firms attempting to produce synthetic version
  • Profit-sharing agreement:
  • Local Samoans receive 50% of all royaltiesfrom sale of prostatin
slide22

“There is a strong link between the health of forests and the health of humans. If peopleunderstand that a rainforest might contain thebest cures for diseases that plague us, they willcare a whole lot more about saving it.”

-Paul Cox