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The Roman Poor 1. Returned from war to find their farms were ___sold___ for unpaid ____taxes___ 2. Moved to the ____city___ to look for jobs 3. Sold their ___votes____ to make money and became __poorer_____. B. Tiberius Gracchus 1. Tried to _give public land to the poor ___

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The Roman Poor

  • 1. Returned from war to find their farms were ___sold___ for unpaid ____taxes___
  • 2. Moved to the ____city___ to look for jobs
  • 3. Sold their ___votes____ to make money and became __poorer_____

B. Tiberius Gracchus

  • 1. Tried to _give public land to the poor ___
  • 2. Was killed in a ___riot____ started by the _patrician_____ senators

The Roman Poor

  • 1. C. Gaius Gracchus
  • 1. Was elected ___tribune___ in ___123_______ B.C.E.
  • 2. Lowered price of ___grain_____ for the __poor_____
  • 3. Patricians stopped the __reform_____ movement

D. Military Leaders

  • 1. Marius formed an army from _the poor___ , and won in __North Africa__ and _Gaul__
  • 2. __Lucius Sulla___ defeated Marius and made himself ___dictator____
  • 3. The First ___Triumvirate___ ruled Rome together for less than ____ten_____ years
v section 5 the end of the republic
V. Section 5: The End of the Republic

A. Julius Caesar,Crassus_,Pompey=1stTriumvirate

  • 1. Had more power than the _Senate___
  • 2. Made __dictator____ for life in 44 B.C.
  • 3. On March 15, 44 B.C., _Senators___ assassinated him

B. Second Triumvirate

  • 1. Included __Octavian____ , __Mark Anthony___ , and ___Marcus Lepidus____
  • 2. __ Octavian _____ declared war on Mark Antony and __Cleopatra__________ , who killed themselves
  • 3. __ Octavian __ became Rome’s first emperor
augustus caesar
Augustus Caesar

1. Began the _____second great period of Roman history___________________________________________________

  • 2. Built _new temples______ , _theaters____ , _public buildings____ , ___roads__ , and a
  • large _aqueduct___

B. Government

  • 1. The provinces___ were the lands outside of Italy, and were _divided____ into
  • two groups
  • 2. The __senate____ controlled the __older_____ provinces
  • 3. The __emperor____ controlled the ___newer___ provinces on the frontier

C. PaxRomana

  • 1. Means __Roman Peace__
  • 2. During this time, people led __civilized___ lives

II. Section 2: Governing the Roman Empire (pp. 194-198)

  • A. Emperors
  • 1. __Tiberius___ was the adopted son of Augustus
  • 2. _Caligula_____ was thought by some to be ___insane___ , or ill in his mind
  • 3. Claudius was chosen by __guards___
  • 4. __Nero____ played the lyre and thought of himself as ____an artist_____

5. When __Trajan___ ruled, Rome reached its greatest size

  • 6. Hadrian passed laws that protected ___women__ , ___children__ , and __slaves___
  • 7. __Marcus Aurelius____ became a soldier, and let in ___invaders__ because he wanted
  • _peace_____

B. Empire Declined

  • 1. Because its ___government___ never found a way to _____choose a new emperor__
  • 2. Because it had too little _money_____ due to its __wars___
  • 3. Because a __plague___ hit the empire

A bustling center of political consumer market life, it was an ideal place for dramatic speeches.


Rich landowners lived on huge estate

problems in the republic
Problems in the Republic

The Rich landowners (Latifundia) were taking farms left untended by soldiers serving in the army.

Slaves captured during the wars had to work The latifundia’s

Small farmers found it difficult to compete with large estates that were run by slaves and these farmers had to work as seasonal migrant laborers or move to the cities to find jobs.

The wealthy became corrupt which causes tension between the social classes (discontent arose among the slaves and resentment among the poor.

tiberius and gaius gracchus
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus

Tiberius Gracchus attempted to organize a fairer distribution of land, his brother Gaius tried to integrate the peoples of Italy into the Roman state. Both - despite being the elected representatives of the people (tribunes) were murdered by senators, fearful that their ancient privileges were being eroded.

civil war in rome 88 82 bce
Civil war in Rome 88-82 BCE

Marius opens the army to all citizens. But his new army is loyal to him personally rather than to the state. For the first time the army is used by an individual to short-circuit traditional political methods.(The Roman army consist of paid soldier or slaves; not citizen soldiers


As a consul, he (Marius) promised recruits land in exchange for their service (Africa) and was rejected by the Senate. Civil war erupted and Gen Sulla restored order.

julius caesar 100 44bce
Julius Caesar 100-44BCE

The government was in a state of collapse, and so he joined Crassus and Pompey to form the First Triumvirate – which means rule by three men. In 59 B.C. Caesar was elected to the highest office, that of consul.

caesar was appointed governor of northern italy and southern france
Caesar was appointed governor of northern Italy and southern France

The Celtic tribes of Gaul were conquered and the country incorporated into the Roman Empire. Invading tribes from Germany were hurled back, and when they persisted in returning, Caesar crossed the Rhine and taught them a severe lesson. Soon after this he embarked on his most exciting venture: the invasion of Britain.

the senate was frightened of caesar s power and distrusted him
the Senate was frightened of Caesar's power and distrusted him.

The Senate now joined forces with Caesar's old ally, Pompey, in order to seize power from Caesar. They sought to impose severe restrictions on him, and ordered him to come to Rome alone, unarmed, and stripped of all his offices. "Aleaiactaest", quoted as "Let the die be cast" or "Let the dice fly high."

julius caesar and the 23rd legion he crossed the river rubicon
Julius Caesar and the 23rd Legion he crossed the river Rubicon

The Senate had been disobeyed and civil war had begun. In Italy Caesar's old soldiers flocked to join him. Pompey, seeing that he could not overcome Caesar in Italy, fled to Greece.

Pompey fled to Egypt, but the Egyptian king, Ptolemy, seeing which way the wind was blowing, had him murdered. When Caesar arrived a few weeks later, he was (to his utter disgust) presented with Pompey's mummified head

caesar now occupied himself with egyptian affairs
Caesar now occupied himself with Egyptian affairs.

Ptolemy was deposed and his sister, Cleopatra, made queen. A romantic attachment developed between the old soldier and the beautiful young queen, and Caesar dallied in Egypt still longer.

Then at last Caesar returned to Rome. He was now undisputed master of the civilized world. He was made dictator for life and was even regarded as one of the gods

the ides of march middle or 15 th
The Ides of March (middle or 15th)

The Senate thought he was going to abolish the republican form of government and make himself king. Several of these men became so alarmed that they plotted together to murder Caesar. On the Ides of March (15th) 44 BC Caesar arrived at the Senate. At a given signal the conspirators gathered round and plunged their daggers into his body.(23 times)(“Et tu Brute?”)

et tu brute
Et Tu Brute



The Legends of History : Historical Illustrations featuring themes of War & Civilization & an Outline of History by Howard David Johnson

the second triumvirate octavian marc antony and lepidus
The Second Triumvirate Octavian, Marc Antony, and Lepidus.

Second three-man ruling group to rule Rome, formed to fill the void in government left by Julius Caesar's death.

When Antony became involved with Cleopatra and decided to fight Rome, Octavian played a part in defeating Antony's forces. Once Antony was out of the way and Lepidus was forced to retire, Octavian was free to become Augustus Caesar. (next slide Actium 31BCE)

the new title of octavian augustus exalted one
The new title of Octavian = Augustus (“exalted one”)

OctaviusThurinus, he was adopted by his great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar in 44 BC,

The rule of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the PaxRomana, or Roman peace. (207 years)

2 nd emperor tiberius adopted son of augustus
2nd Emperor Tiberius (adopted son of Augustus)

In his will Tiberius left the empire to both Caligula and Tiberius Gemellus, but soon after becoming Emperor, Caligula had Tiberius' will declared void and soon had Gemellus killed

1st bad emperor caligula
1st bad Emperor Caligula


• Mentally


• Assassinated

after short,

brutal reign

2 nd bad emperor nero
2nd bad emperor = Nero


• Good administrator



• Murdered many

• Persecuted


• Committed


3 rd bad emperor domitian
3rd bad emperor = Domitian

• 81–96

• Ruled dictatorially

• Feared treason

everywhere and

executed many

• Assassinated

1 st good emperors nerva
1st Good Emperors = Nerva


Began custom

of adopting heir

2 nd good emperor trajan
2nd good Emperor = Trajan


Empire reached

its greatest extent

• Undertook vast

building program

• Enlarged social


3 rd good emperor hadrian
3rd good emperor = Hadrian


• Consolidated

earlier conquests

• Reorganized the


4 th good emperor antoninus pius
4th good emperor = Antoninus Pius


• Reign largely a

period of peace

and prosperity

5 th good emperor marcus aurelius
5th good emperor = Marcus Aurelius


Brought empire

to height of



• Defeated


• Wrote philosophy

Marius, a legion had several standards which were carried in front of different units. He made the eagle the pre-eminent standard for all legions, to be a signal as to where the action was and a rallying point for the troops. To lose, or to have to surrender, an eagle to the enemy was a colossal disgrace.

If the eagle was captured the legion would disband. It is interesting that Julius Caesar personally sanctified the eagle when the legion was brought forth. On one of the legion standards the powerful talons of the eagle are gripping golden thunderbolts, as the eagle stands ready for flight against all enemies of Rome. At the very top of the standard above the eagle is a gold bar with the inscription SPQR (SenatusPopulusRomanus) honoring the Senate and the People

Some—strong, healthy males—were forced tobecome gladiators, or professional fighters, who fought to the death in public contests