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Space Infrared Astronomy in Japan. 2009 UN BSS & IHY Workshop, September 22, 2009 MATSUMOTO, Toshio Seoul National University, ISAS/JAXA. Infrared observation is inevitable to understand the evolution of the Universe. Most of energy is emitted in infrared Wavelength (1m m – 1 mm )

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space infrared astronomy in japan

Space Infrared Astronomy in Japan

2009 UN BSS & IHY Workshop, September 22, 2009

MATSUMOTO, Toshio

Seoul National University, ISAS/JAXA

infrared observation is inevitable to understand the evolution of the universe
Infrared observation is inevitable to understand the evolution of the Universe

Most of energy is emitted in infrared

Wavelength (1mm – 1mm)

Far infrared view of ORION

Thermal emission of interstellar dust is Indication of star forming activity

Optical image

IRAS 12, 60, & 100 µm (NASA/IPAC)

why space infrared observation
Why space infrared observation?

●Wide wavelength coverage

Atmosphere is opaque in infrared region

Some windows at near and mid IR

FIR observation can be done only from space

●Very low background

High sensitivity

Absolute observation of diffuse extended sources

But telescope must be cooled down!

thermal emission and transparency of the atmosphere
Thermal emission and transparency of the atmosphere

40 km

1.0

0.0

10-3

10-6

10-9

14 km

4 km

220k Blackbody

Surface brightness (W.m-2.mm-1.sr-1) Transparency

Zodiacal light

250 km

IPD emission

CMB

ISD emission

10 100 1000

Wavelength (mm)

space infrared observation is difficult
Space infrared observation is difficult!
  • How to keep liquid Helium at zero gravity?

Separation of gas from liquid

Porous plug

  • How can we realize long life of coolant?

Cryostat must survive after the shock and vibration during launch

GFRPtension support

cf UFURU:1970

IRAS:1983 COBE, ISO, Spitzer

many rocket and balloon flights 1970 1980
Many rocket and balloon flights(1970’ – 1980’)

● Short time scale and low cost, but limited capability

short observing time (rocket)

narrow wavelength coverage, high background (Balloon)

● Benefits

Development of key technology for future

Good training for students

Must be scientifically significant !

19 sounding rocket experiments, 13 balloon flights, 2 satellite launch

irts infrared telescope in space
IRTS (Infrared Telescope in Space)

One of mission instruments of

small space platform, SFU

launched on March 15, 1995

15cm cold telescope

Optimized for diffuse

Extended sources

Mission life ~ 1 month

focal plane instrument
Focal Plane Instrument

NIRS (Near Infrared Spectrometer)

wavelength coverage 1.4-4.0 mm

spectral resolution 0.13 mm

beam size 8 arcmin. x8arcmin.

MIRS (Mid infrared spectrometer)

wavelength coverage 4.5-11.7mm

spectral resolution ~0.3 mm

beam size 8 arcmin. x 8arcmin.

FILM (Far-Infrared Line mapper)

wavelength coverage 158(CII) and 63 (OI) mm

spectral resolution l/Dl~ 400

beam size 8 arcmin. x 13 arcmin.

FIRP (Far-Infrared Photometer)

wavelength coverage 150-700 mm

spectral resolution l/Dl~ 3

beam size 8 arcmin. x 13 arcmin.

detector temperature 0.3K

slide13

Based on the success of IRTS, we proposed dedicated infrared astronomical satellite to ISAS, ASTRO-F (AKARI), on 1995ASTRO-F●70 cm aperture, liq.He cooled telescope●Survey mission, higher sensitivity and better spatial resolution longer wavelength band (200mm) than IRAS

advanced space cryogenics
Advanced space cryogenics
  • Effective use of radiative cooling
  • 2-stage Stirling Cooler
  • Life time of liquid Helium
  • 550 days with 170 liter Liq. He
  • cf. IRAS and COBE
  • 10 months with 600 liter Liq. He
akari focal plane instrumnets
AKARI, Focal Plane Instrumnets

IRC(Infrared Camera)

512x412 InSb array camera, 1.5”/pixel

imaging observation at 2.4, 3.2, and 4.1 mm

low resolution spectroscopy

256x256 SiAsarray, 2.4”/pixel

imaging observation at 7~24 mm

low resolution spectroscopy

FIS(Far Infrared Surveyor)

all sky survey with 4 bands

from 50 – 200 mm

Fourier spectroscopy

slide17

ASTRO-F was launched on February 22, 2006, and named as “AKARI”

  • Orbit : sun synchronous orbit, 705 km altitude
  • Liq. He ran out on August 2007
  • Near infrared observation is still being continued (phase 3) owing to cooler

http://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/ASTRO-F/Observation/

slide20

AKARI 9 & 18 mm

Star forming region observed with AKARI

Reflection nebulae IC1396

Visible light

Credit: Davide De Martin (http://www.skyfactory.org/), ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator & Digitized Sky Survey

slide24

90% of the whole sky was surveyed

  • ~880,000 sources are detected
akari fis bsc b 2
AKARI-FIS BSC b-2

WIDE-S (90 µm)

Preliminary

284,633 sources

  • First point source catalogue will be opened to public in next spring
next mission after akari
Next mission after AKARI?

Space observation is very sensitive, but angular resolution is not so good compared with optical and radio due to the diffraction limit.

l/D ~ 30 arcsec, at 100 mm for AKARI

It is too heavy to install large aperture telescope for the traditional space infrared mission (IRAS, ISO, AKARI).

New idea is required!

slide27

No cryogen, warm launch

Cooled down in space with mechanical cooler

Effective radiation cooling at L2 orbit

-> SPICA

Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics

outline of spica
Outline of SPICA
  • To reveal the history of Universe
  • through Infrared Observations
  • Telescope: 3.5m, 4.5 K
    • HSO: 3.5m, 80K
    • JWST: ~6m, <50K
  • Core λ: 5-200 μm
  • MIR imaging, spectroscopy
  • FIR imaging, spectroscopy (SAFARI)
  • NIR, MIR coronagraph (option)
  • NIR camera (FPC, option)
  • Orbit: Sun-Earth L2 Halo
  • Warm Launch, Cooling in Orbit No Cryogen
  • SPICA is now pre-project phase
  • Final approval will be on 2010 fall
  • Launch: ~2017
spica will be opened to world wide community
SPICA will be opened to world wide community
  • We welcome participation of other countries

focal plane instruments

Development of software

Satellite operation

Observation and science

  • Open time to general community (~20%) is planned

Contact person: nakagawa@ir.isas.jaxa.jp

slide34

AKARI Point Source Catalogue(s)

  • First point source catalogue will be opened to public in next spring