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Learning Lessons Year By Year. Overview. Hindsight is 20-20. Keep that in mind. The Civil War reminded us that we have to make decisions on the fly and the Civil War was as much of a war of mistakes as it was about defining our country’s image.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Hindsight is 20-20. Keep that in mind.
  • The Civil War reminded us that we have to make decisions on the fly and the Civil War was as much of a war of mistakes as it was about defining our country’s image.
  • Question: If you’re the Union, what is your goal? If you’re the Confederates, what is your goal in all this?
  • Fall of Fort Sumter
  • Assumption on both sides that it would be a short war.
  • Small Forces for both sides.
  • Major Battles
    • First Battle of Bull Run – Confederacy wins, shows that war will be long and drawn out
    • Battle of Wilson’s Creek – First major battle west of the Mississippi River
  • Battles concentrated in Virginia, Missouri, Kentucky
  • Leaders
    • Gen. George B. McClellan – Union
    • Confederacy – No formal leader, Jefferson Davis calls shots
  • Capture of 2 Confederate Officials by US Navy on Nov. 8. Another war with Britain?
first battle of bull run
First Battle of Bull Run
  • Virginia, July 21st
  • Early Morning: Union forces chip away at the sides of the Confederates
  • Problems: Waterways, Bridges
  • Noon: Jackson’s Stand – Maybe a mistake and miscommunication BUT inspired the troops and allowed him to assert control over the main attacking portion of the Army.
  • Major Battles
    • Capture of Fort Henry & Fort Donelson – Union cuts off key rivers of the Confederacy
    • Monitor vs. Merrimac – Naval Battle, ironclad ships
    • Shiloh – More men die here than in all wars combined up to this point
    • New Orleans captured by Union
    • Seven Days Battle – Lee defeats McClellan
    • Antietam – Bloodiest single day of war, 23,000 die
    • Fredericksburg – Union loses 2x amount of men, shows inept Union leaders
  • Leaders
    • Robert E. Lee – Confederacy – given full command
    • Union
      • McClellan is fired after Antietam (Sept)
      • Replaced by Gen. Ambrose Burnside, Burnside fired after Fredericksburg
      • Replaced by General Joseph Hooker
  • Fighting takes place in Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky
  • Fighting expands further south but Lee takes war north at the end of the year
  • Emancipation Proclamation
    • Frees slaves in non-Union territories
    • Makes war about slavery
second battle of bull run
Second Battle of Bull Run
  • Union learns lesson, doesn’t get backed up by waterways
  • Fought more in open field
  • Lee has the advantage of numbers
  • Communication will be lost for Union
  • Concentration vs. Spread
  • Non-Battle related issues
    • Draft for Military – Get out for $300
    • Anti-draft Riots – Murder of Blacks by Poor Whites, Army has to subdue
    • Lincoln meets with Frederick Douglass
  • Major Battles
    • Chancellorsville – Lee’s genius: splits army twice, Stonewall Jackson shot by his own men, Lincoln loses faith in Hooker
    • Siege of Vicksburg – Cuts off Confederacy’s actions west of Mississippi, Grant becomes hero, Confederacy loses 7x amount of men as the Union, splits Confederacy army in two
    • Gettysburg – turning point of war, bloodiest battle, ends Confederacy’s hopes of northern invasion
    • Siege of Chattanooga – Union escapes siege, Confederacy fails to crush Union’s army
  • War will primarily be fought in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Virginia
  • Gettysburg
    • South will fight for survival after failure
    • With army split in two (Vicksburg), Union strategy becomes entrapment
    • Meade wins but fails to follow up victory
  • Gettysburg Address
    • 5 different copies/versions exist
    • Makes war appeal to deepest emotions
    • Reiterates the values of the Declaration of Independence
    • Renews optimism in Union for victory
  • Lincoln appoints Grant to head Union Army
    • 5th Commander, Who else was there?
    • Last ditch effort for Union
  • New tactics
    • Overwhelm with men and munitions
    • Total War – Not in killing but in destruction
  • Sherman – Takes Atlanta, March to Sea
  • Fighting takes place in Western Confederacy
  • Lee and Grant meet, Lee initially wins opening battles but is losing men and resources
  • Lincoln defeats McClellan for Presidency
  • Thirteenth Amendment passed
  • Lincoln inauguration
    • “With malice towards none…”
  • Last offensive of the Confederates
    • Only two major forces remaining
  • Grant breaks through Lee’s lines
    • Final Stroke
    • Richmond evacuated
  • Richmond burned and later captured by Union
  • Surrender at Appomattox Court House
    • Leniency towards Confederates
    • April 9th, 1865
  • April 14th – Lincoln shot, dies a day later
  • John Wilkes Booth found, shot dead
  • Final surrender of remaining Confederate Forces
  • End of War, now what?
looking back
Looking Back
  • How would you have done things differently?
  • How did this shape our image?
  • How many mistakes does it take before you get fired?