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Distribution Efficiency Initiative: Calculator Review. April 29, 2008 Regional Technical Forum. Overview. Calculator Input & Output Review DEI Measure Life Develop 3 New Load Shapes I 2 R Losses Transformer No-Load Losses Delivered Energy Reduction Savings.

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Distribution efficiency initiative calculator review

Distribution Efficiency Initiative:Calculator Review

April 29, 2008

Regional Technical Forum


  • Calculator Input & Output Review

  • DEI Measure Life

  • Develop 3 New Load Shapes

    • I2R Losses

    • Transformer No-Load Losses

    • Delivered Energy Reduction Savings

Where the savings are expected to come from
Where the Savings are Expected to Come From

Source: NEEA DEI Project Final Report by RW Beck page B-23

Calculator overview
Calculator Overview

Calculator Inputs

Calculator Outputs


I2R Losses

Balanced losses

Unbalanced losses

Transformer No-load Losses

Delivered Energy Reduction


Utility B/C and Payback

  • Pre & Post Conditions

    • Load Types (heating system types, etc.)

    • Line Info (length, type, etc.)

    • Regulator Info

    • Load Info (kW, PF, Annual Energy etc.)

    • Equipment (Capacitors, Transformers)

  • Costs

    • Materials

    • Labor

Calculator primary issues
Calculator Primary Issues

  • Calculator Does Not Output

    • Substation Power Transformer Losses

      • Approx. 33% of the savings

    • Secondary Line Losses

      • Approx. 3% of the savings

    • I2R Loss Calculation may need revision

      • Does not output negative savings when voltage reduction is the only measure

  • TRC Analysis Added to Calculator

    • O&M Costs Input

    • TRC Analysis Output

What s the measure life 15 years for all
What’s the Measure Life15 years for all?

Savings Mechanism

  • Voltage Regulation

    • LDC using LTC or Voltage Regulator

      • Substation Bus (control setting)

      • Each Feeder (control setting)

    • End of Line feedback

      • Substation Bus (device, override?)

      • Each Feeder (device, override?)

  • Equipment Upgrades

    • Capacitor Banks (device, 10 year life?)

    • Transformers (device)

  • Phase Balancing (maintenance?)

  • Line Voltage Regulators (device)

  • Reconductoring

  • Current assumption is 15 years.

  • Some components last about 10 years (capacitor banks)

  • Much of the savings rely on maintaining improved control practices over time, rather than installing more efficient equipment.

  • Calculator does not allow for varying measure life by component.


  • Load Research

    • Home Voltage Regulators on 395 homes

  • Pilot Demonstration

    • Various DEI measures on 10 substations (31 feeders)

DEI Study had two monitoring components

Kw from load research
∆kW from Load Research


Delivered energy savings shape
Delivered Energy Savings Shape


Load Factor: 0.68

Coincident Factor: 0.39

I 2 r loss load shape i 2 r proxy kw pre v pre 2 kw post v post 2
I2R Loss Load Shape∆I2Rproxy =(kWpre/Vpre) 2 – (kWpost/Vpost) 2

Result (negative savings):

Load Factor: 0.29

Coincident Factor: 0.15

Transformer no load loss savings shape flat lf 1 00 cf 0 68
Transformer No-load Loss Savings Shape = FLAT (LF 1.00, CF 0.68)

∆V From Pilot Project:

Pro cost regional npv based on 15 year measure life
Pro Cost => Regional NPV(Based on 15 year measure life)

Issues with these load shapes
Issues with these Load Shapes

  • Averaged seasonal shapes

    • Do not take weekend/weekday into account

    • Peaks are hidden in the averaging

      • ∆V will be less during peak loading conditions

  • Delivered Energy Savings Shape

    • Delta kW from HVR’s is different than delta kW from a change in LTC settings at the bus/feeder

    • Heating/Cooling system type is averaged for the region

  • I2R loss savings shape is complex

    • This load shape is based solely on a system voltage reduction

    • Savings could also come from:

      • Phase balancing (shape?)

      • PF correction (shape?)

  • Transformer No-Load Loss Savings Shape

    • Need Pilot Demonstration data to determine how different it is from flat

Questions for rtf
Questions for RTF

  • What is needed for approval of the calculator?

    • Add output for substation power transformer? Secondary line losses?

    • I2R revision?

    • Should there be any additional requirements for users (Training or Oversight)?

  • What should the measure life(s) be?

  • Is load shape analysis on the right track?

    • Pursue 8760 data (Pilot Demonstration and Load Research) for better load shape analysis?

      • Delivered Energy Savings Shape will be based on Load Research 8760 data (∆kW)

        • Depending on results, may have multiple load shapes for different mixes of heating system types

      • I2R Energy Savings Shape will be based on???

      • Transformer No-Load Loss Saving Shape will be based on Pilot Demo 8760 data (∆V)