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Tissues. Students, Please note: This is a rough draft of a power point that has not been proofread or redrafted. I am sorry for any spelling, grammatical errors, etc. It is basically a rough draft for key points of the tissues to go along with my lecture-lab presentation of the tissues.

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  • Please note: This is a rough draft of a power point that has not been proofread or redrafted. I am sorry for any spelling, grammatical errors, etc.
  • It is basically a rough draft for key points of the tissues to go along with my lecture-lab presentation of the tissues.
  • It does not contain everything you need to know.
  • It is merely a guide.
  • Please use your objectives and exercises to study thoroughly for the lab quizzes.

Epithelial tissue

  • Lines internal body cavities and passage ways; covers body surfaces
  • Usually named after the cell shape
  • 2 questions
    • How many layers of epithelial cells are present?
      • One-simple
      • More than one-stratified
    • What is the shape of the cells at the apical surface( the top of the cell which faces the lumen or body surface) ?
      • Squamous-flat like a fried egg( yolk is the nucleus)

Flat shape allows easy diffusion; filtration, secretion-reduces friction

  • cuboidal epithelium: ( cube-shaped) ( die-one) shaped like an ice cube; large round , centrally located nucleus
  • Columnar epithelium (column-shaped) oblong or oval shaped nucleus is generally located at the base of the cell
  • Exceptions
    • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
      • Pseudo-false
      • “falsely stratified”
      • Looks like multiple layers of cells , but each cell actually touches the basement membrane
        • Nuclei of cells are at different layers
          • Note: these cells are ciliated in the trachea, nasal cavity and bronchi.

Transitional epithelium –what does transition mean?

  • Relaxed bladder-dome-shaped cells at the surface; note: nuclei are key feature-note shape and stain
  • Bladder, ureters, urethra, renal pelvis-things that have to change shape
  • Stretched-cells appear more flattened at the surface.
connective tissue
Connective Tissue
  • Connective tissue is for structural support of other tissues and organs. It is the most abundant type of tissue. It is composed of cells, fibers , and ground substance.
  • The two most common types of proteins are elastin and collagen. Collagen-strength (tendons) elastin(stretch) (aorta)
  • Elastin- stains black with our slides.
  • Collagen- stains pink or blue with our slides.

Loose connective Tissue

    • Areolar connective tissue-collagen, elastin, and fibroblasts—make collagen
    • Adipose connective tissue-adipocytes-fat cells-note: uninuclear cells; all the fat pushes the nucleus to the side of the cell.
    • Reticular connective tissue: cobwebs; network of reticular fibers which help to support many different cell types.
      • Spleen, lymph nodes, liver, kidney
      • Supportive net-like structure for many different cell types

Dense regular connective tissue

    • Fibrous connective tissue-collage fibers make-up most of dense regular connective tissue
    • Tendons- The Achille’s tendon (Calcaneal tendon) is the strongest tendon in the body.
      • Regular arrangement of collagen fibers
      • Slightly wavy appearance
      • Flattened fibroblast nuclei
    • Dense irregular connective tissue
      • Random arrangement of collagenfibers; patchwork
      • Dermis of the skin
        • Can be pulled in many different directions; pull on your skin-it pulls in many different directions
        • Helps resist stresses applied

Cartilage( no blood supply)

  • Key feature: Chondrocytes with in lacunae
  • Chondro: cartilage
  • Can tell the different types based on the matrix-firm gel material that contains protein fibers, etc.
  • Swiss cheese, Geico commercial or eyes staring at you!
    • Hyaline cartilageconnective tissue: smooth purple matrix
    • Elastic cartilageconnective tissue: black elastin fibers
    • Fibrocartilageconnective tissue; note:collagen fibers stain blue on these slides

Elastic connective Tissue

    • Places where you need stretch-Aorta; helps control

blood Pressure; stretch and recoil of the tissue.

    • Bone Connective tissue
    • Looks like tree trunks –osteon of bone( compact bone)
      • Osteocytes



Hard substance composed of calcium phosphate and collagen fibers

    • Blood connective tissue
      • Note the diversity of connective tissue; tissues as hard as bone and something with the fluidity of blood
      • Erythrocytes: mature red blood cells are anuclear; shape and function; transport respiratory gases
        • Erythro:red
        • Cyte:cell


    • Leuko-white
    • Cyte-cell
    • Have a dark staining nucleus
    • 5 specific types-211 material
    • Involved in immune responses; defense
  • Skeletal muscle
    • Striations, multinucleate; stacked logs with zebra stripes; many nuclei / cell; regular arrangement; voluntary
  • Cardiac muscle
    • Intercalated disc- specialized junction-allows passage of ions, yet keeps the cells in close contact or glued together so that contraction can occur in an orderly fashion; special gap and desmosome junction
    • Usually uninuclear
    • -interbranching pattern-Purkinje system or intrinsic conduction system; involuntary
  • Smooth Muscle
    • Involuntary; no striations; staggered, tapered cells; usually oval shaped nuclei
nervous tissue
Nervous Tissue
  • Conduct electrical impulse; fast response
  • Functional unit: neuron
integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • Skin
  • Largest organ in the body
  • Three regions (layers) of the skin
    • EpidermisEpi- upon, derm-: skin
      • Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis(subcutaneous layer)
      • Hypo-under, below
      • Mainly adipose connective tissue
      • Also has a good supply of blood vessels so subcutaneous injections are given with a hypodermic needle

Five cell layers of the epidermis

  • “Can Lucy give Some blood?”
    • From superficial to deep
  • Thick Skin
    • Stratum CorneumDead cells ; water proofing layer; protection; slough off
    • Stratum lucidum What does lucid mean?
    • Stratum granulosumLook for black granules.
    • Stratum spinosumSpine-like appearance of interconnecting cells
    • Stratum basaleBottom layer of cells; in contact with basement membrane –one cell layer
    • Thin skin does not have a stratum lucidum.

Two regions of the dermis

    • Papillary region
      • Upper one fifth of the dermis
      • Consists primarily of loose connective tissue.
      • Note: Meissner’s corpuscles are in the papilla of the dermis.
        • Function in fine touch
    • Reticular region
      • Deeper four fifths of the dermis
      • Consists primarily of dense irregular connective tissue
sensory receptors and sweat glands
Sensory Receptors and Sweat glands
  • Meissner’s corpuscles: tactile; fine touch
  • Pacinian corpuscle: deep pressure; “ lamellated corpuscle”; “ dried out sliced onion”; located near the surface of the hypodermis or deep in the reticular layer of the dermis

Sudoriferous Glands

Exocrineglands-secrete their secretions into ducts

The ducts are lined by stratified cuboidal epithelium-usually only about 2 cell layers


eccrine: merocrine; widely distributed; secrete a watery secretion

apocrine: armpits, groin, nipples; secrete both proteins and lipids; “bacteria food”; body odor

  • Sebaceous glands- often associated with hair follicles; secrete an oily secretion called sebum
  • Arrector pili muscle; smooth muscle; involuntary; “goose bumps”
  • Hair follicle; makes the hair shaft
  • Hair root