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The Human Story. Where We Came From & How We Evolved. Identifying the first hominids. In L.C.A., look for anatomical features shared by humans and living great apes Starting from there, 1st hominids must have evolved at least one feature that we see only in modern humans

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The human story l.jpg

The Human Story

Where We Came From

&

How We Evolved


Identifying the first hominids l.jpg
Identifying the first hominids

  • In L.C.A., look for anatomical features shared by humans and living great apes

  • Starting from there, 1st hominids must have evolved at least one feature that we see only in modern humans

  • Scientists focus on two major areas

    • Anatomy related to bipedalism

    • Size / shape of canine and 1st premolar teeth

Large brain size, hard evidence for culture, language, etc., come much later.


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Evidence of Bipedalism

  • Placement of foramen magnum

  • Shape of spine

  • Shape of pelvic girdle

  • Bicondylar angle (knock-kneed)

  • Parallel toes (no divergent big toe)

  • Two fixed arches in foot

    • Side to side / front to back





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Anatomical Adaptations for Habitual Upright Bipedalism

A comparison of the chimp, human, and A. afarensis femurs demonstrates a rounder femoral head and longer femoral neck length in hominids.



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ORIGINS OF BIPEDALISM

Or

WHYWE WALK ON TWO LEGS

Download and read these articles:

The Origins of Habitual Upright Bipedalism

The Origins of Obligate Bipedalism in Hominins

The Whats and Whys of Habitual Upright Bipedalism


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If you asked a roomful of anthropologists why we walk on two legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.Specialists cite everything fromchanginglandscapesto needing tokeep cool to heightening sexual attraction- generally agreeing only on one point: that everyone else's hypothesis is wrong. Let’s take a look at some of these hypotheses.


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Six Major Hypotheses legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.

Hauling Food

Grabbing A Bite

A New World

Keeping Cool

Attracting Mates

Weapons and Tools


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Bipedalism: Hauling Food legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.

  • As African landscape shifted from forests toward large patches of open woodlands & savannahs, food supplies waned, wannabe hominids descended from trees / became ground-dwellers.

    • Because could no longer feed where lived, were forced to carry food over long distances back to home bases - tricky task if remained quadrupeds.

  • While some contend early hominids gathered fruits and nuts, a few argue that they were scavengers.

    • Upright stance enabled ancestors to lug carcasses to safer areas for consumption, also allowing them to see other food sources or potential danger at greater distances


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Bipedalism: A New World legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.

  • As early hominids left forest to explore woodlands / savannas, no longer needed body structure for climbing.

    • Those who could walk upon two feet better able to survive

      • expended less energy / could travel longer distances than knuckle-walkers

      • better able to see potential dangers lurking in the distance

  • Our ancestors developed an upright posture to

    • carry food over long distances

    • or find it.


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Bipedalism: Attracting Mates legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.

  • Sex — specifically males' desire to get more of it — a direct reason for why we walk upright.

  • Upright males better breadwinners

    • Those who could walk bipedally freed their arms to carry more food - made knuckle-walkers far less appealing to females.

    • Their ability to have more food for females (who remained at the home base to care for the offspring) ensured that they were able to reproduce, thus leading to future generations of adept bipeds who in turn were able to pass on their own genes.


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Grabbing A Bite legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.

  • Ability to walk upright was in part a serendipitous by-product of new feeding habits.

  • As our ancestors descended from trees to forage on the ground for low-hanging fruits and berries, they began to feed from a squatting position.

  • Over time, physiological changes occurred in upper bodies, backbones, pelvic areas, causing weight and centers of balance to shift to a lower point in the body.


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Bipedalism: legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.Keeping Cool

  • Protected early hominids from overheating

    • Exposes less of body to direct sunlight on savannahs than quadrupeds of the same size (60% less heat load)

  • Raised bodies above the ground, enabling skin to come in better contact with cooler / faster-moving breezes

    • Also meant hominids needed only 3 pints of water / day, whereas quadrupeds needed 5


Bipedalism l.jpg

Weapons legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.

& tools

Bipedalism:ß

  • Some hypothesize bipedalism brought forth our ability to use weapons / tools - others believe the reverse: advent of tool / weapon use encouraged us to become bipedal.


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Six Major Hypotheses legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.

Grabbing A Bite

Hauling Food

A New World

Keeping Cool

Attracting Mates

Weapons and Tools

ALL these models may have played a role in the emergence of

habitual upright bipedalism


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From Ape to Hominid legs - not get the same answer from any two of them.

  • Proto-Hominids (Opportunistic bipeds)

    • Sahelanthropus tchandensis / Orrorin tugeninsis

  • Transitional Opportunistic-into-Habitual Bipeds

    • Ardipithecus ramidus / Australopithecus anamensis

  • First True Habitual Upright Bipeds

    • Australopithecus afarensis / A. africanus / A. garhi

    • Australopithecus robustus / A. boisei


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There is no straight line in the greater than four million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.


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From Ape to Hominid million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Proto-Hominids (Opportunistic bipeds)

    • Sahelanthropus techandensis / Orrorin tugeninsis

  • Transitional Opportunistic-into-Habitual Bipeds

    • Ardipithecus ramidus / Australopithecus anamensis

  • First True Habitual Bipeds

    • Australopithecus afarensis / A. africanus / A. garhi

    • Australopithecus robustus / A. boisei


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Proto-Hominids million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Molecular biology strongly suggests:

    • Last common ancestor of chimps & humans lived 5-8 m.y.a.

  • Two recent finds warrant our attention:

    • Sahelanthropus tchadensis

    • Orrorin tugenensis


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Sahelanthropus tchadensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • 6 - 7 m.y.a.

  • Brain size: 1/4th of ours

  • No post-cranial bones

  • Don’t know if habitual biped

  • Lived in variety of habitats

  • Likely ate mainly fruit, with smaller amounts of other foods.

Download and read:

The Earliest Possible Hominids


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Orrorin tugenensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • 6 m.y.a.

  • Remains fragmentary

  • Canines / premolars extremely ape-like BUT with thick tooth enamel (like hominids)

  • Maybe bipedal

  • Inferior side of femoral neck (#1 on picture) is thick (like hominids)


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Ardipithecus ramidus million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. A species of bipedal apes

  • 5.8 - 4.4 m.y.a.

  • Possibly bipedal (but not like us)

  • Small bodied (64-100 lbs); small brained (300-350 cc)

  • Combo of hominid-like & chimp-like traits

  • Diet: unknown (relatively thin tooth enamel)

  • Well-watered, forested environment

  • Discovery Channel Website About "Ardi"


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Ardi Revealed million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Ardi’s skeleton includes many important bones of the skull, hands, feet, limbs, and pelvis. These fossil bones offer key insights into how 'Ardi' was built, and how she moved. Her skeleton demonstrates that she was capable

of both walking upright AND clambering through trees with a grasping big toe, in a way unlike any other creature known to science. Ardi shows an unexpected mix of advanced characteristics and of primitive traits seen in much older apes that were unlike chimps or gorillas. As such, the skeleton offers a window on what the last common ancestor of humans and living apes might have been like.

Interactive webpage: Ardi's Key Skeletal Features

Interactive webpage: Ardi's Key Skeletal Features


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Australopithecus anamensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • 4.2 - 3.9 m.y.a.

  • Fragmentary remains

  • Teeth and jaws similar to fossil apes

  • May be earliest incontrovertible evidence of bipedalism

  • Strongly resembles Austr. afarensis

  • Streamside forests


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Australopithecus afarensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

Small-brained, bipedal human ancestors. They are the benchmark by which the anatomy of all other early hominids is interpreted.

  • 4 - 3 mya

  • East Africa

  • Fully bipedal

  • Mix of human-like & ape-like traits

  • Sexually dimorphic


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Lucy: 1st afarensis found million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Her discovery revolutionized ways of thinking about early hominids.

  • 1974 - Hadar, Ethiopia

  • About 3’8” tall; 55 lbs

  • Long arms / short legs

  • Mid-20s when died

  • Teeth: small & unspecialized, indicating a mixed, omnivorous diet of mostly soft foods (fruits)

Left to right: Lucy’s bones, reconstructed Lucy, modern human


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A. afarensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. skull morphology

Male

Female (Lucy)

  • Cranial capacity: 350 -500 cc (2/3rds - 1 water bottle

  • Small sagittal crest in males

  • Slightly projecting upper canine teeth in males

  • Parallel rows of cheek teeth (like apes)


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afarensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. body morphologyGround or tree-dweller?

  • Slightly curved hand & foot bones

  • Relatively long and powerful arms

  • Bowl-shaped pelvis

  • Knock-kneed (knee joint angled inward)

  • Heel bone heavily built (like ours)

  • Foot may have had high, fixed arches (Laetoli?)


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A. afarensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. footprints

  • Laetoli, Tanzania: home to a footprint trail 3.5 m.y. old

  • Probably a trackway of A. afarensis


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An million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. afarensis 3 yr oldbaby girl

  • Ethiopia (Hadar)

  • Lived 3.3 m.y.ago

  • Ape-like scapula

  • Human-like knees

  • Finger bones partially curved

  • Heel bone well-developed

  • Endocast shows delayed brain growth (like us)

  • Chimp-like hyoid bone


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Australopithecus africanus million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • 3.5 - 2.0 m.y.a.

  • Mainly S. Africa

  • Mixture of habitats

  • Fruit, salads, insects, small easily captured prey

  • Brain size: 1/3rd ours

  • Relationship to other hominids? Unknown

This species slightly different from A. afarensis: slightly taller, less facial prognathism, slightly larger brain. Also lived in drier habitats (especially dry scrublands and perhaps open grasslands), and thus may have exploited different resources.


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Australopithecus garhi: million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. A stone tool using australopithecine?

  • Ethiopia

  • 2.5 million years old

  • Mostly fragments of skulls, some post-cranial remains

  • Most intriguing: cut-marked animal bones found near garhi’s remains. Such marks are signs of stone tools being used to carve up animal carcasses. Can’t say for sure IF garhi was maker, maker-user, user (or none of these) of tools.


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The Robust Australopithecines million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Dietary specialists?

  • One of most fascinating branches of human family tree

  • Reveal radically different way of being hominid

  • About 2.5 m.y.a they diverged from our own lineage

  • Came to be defined by an adaptation to eating hard foods like nuts, seeds, and roots


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Robust Austraopithecine Morphology million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • 2.5 - 1 m.y.a.

  • South and East Africa

  • 3 species - united by suite of features related to eating tough foods:

    • Extremely large molars / premolars

    • Dished face

    • Extremely large chewing muscles

    • Wide-flaring cheekbones

    • Pronounced pinching-in behind the eye orbits

    • Prominent sagittal crest


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Robust australopithecine behavior million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

Digging sticks used by modern chimpanzees. While such tools have not been found with robust australopithecine fossils, it is possible they used such tools

  • Omnivores, but relied on hard to chew foods (nuts, roots, seeds)

  • Probably used tools (bones/horns showing polishing, maybe used for digging up roots)

  • Lived in (open) woodlands and savannas

  • Evolutionary dead end


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Australopithecine Foraging Behavior million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

Foraging (the systematic search for food and other provisions) was THE lifeway of all hominids from the earliest australopithecines until about 10,000 years ago (the start of agricultural modes of subsistence.

Foraging by australopithecines and early species of Homo most likely consisted of collecting roots, berries, seeds, nuts, salad greens, insects, etc. Around 2 m.y.a meat, obtained by scavenging, became part of the foraging way of life. Eventually fish and shellfish would be added.


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Major adaptive shifts in hominid evolution ca. 2 m.y.a. million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Australopithecine lineage

    • Intensification of adaptation to hard object feeding

  • Emergence of Homo lineage

    • Several new species appear on African landscape

    • Physically / behaviorally different from earlier & contemporary australopithecines

      • Flatter faces

      • Brain reorganized (lateralization & language regions)

      • Unquestioned manufacture/use of stone tools (bone/horn/wood?)

      • Added meat to diet (scavenging)

      • Some species have brains as large as 750 cc


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Earliest million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Homo species

  • Contentiousness regarding who belongs to early Homo

    (Question: If one of the gracile australopithecine species is ancestral to Homo, how does one tell a late gracile australopith from an early Homo?)

  • At least 3 (perhaps more) Homo species

    • Homo habilis = 2 - 1.5 m.y.a

    • Homo rudolfensis = 2 - 1.8 m.y.a

    • Homo erectus (aka H. ergaster) = 1.8 - 1.0 m.y.a.


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Earliest Members of the Genus million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Homo


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Early million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Homo Behavior

  • Stone tools 1st appear ca. 2.5 mya

    • Most often attributed to H. habilis ( maybe A. garhi)

    • Earliest tools (Oldowan tradition)

      • Flakes (cutting/scraping)

      • Chopper / chopping tools (“smashers / bashers”)

      • Hammerstones

      • Some bone/horn w/scratches (digging?)

  • Meat eating takes on increasing importance after 2.5 m.y.a.

  • Several types of sites: quarries, food processing locations


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Making / Using Oldowan Tools million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

Hominids often traveled up to 10 km to acquire right kind of stone from which to make tools.


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Early million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Homo Scavenging Behavior

Can a hominid eat meat obtained like this and not get sick? Perhaps if one gets there within a few hours of a predator’s kill.


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Out of Africa, Part One million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Homo erectus

  • Found first in Africa = 1.8 - 1.0 m.y.a.

  • Perhaps Rep. of Georgia = 1.7 m.y.a. (H. georgicus?)

  • Island SE Asia = 1.8 m.y.a.

  • Continental Asia = 1.4 m.y.a


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Out of Africa, Part 2 million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Homo erectus

    • By 1.5 m.y.a develops a more sophisticated tool technology (Acheulian)

    • African forms sometimes called H. ergaster

    • Georgian forms sometimes called H. georgicus

    • Asian and southeast Asian forms always called H. erectus


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H. ergaster million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. vs. H. erectus

H. georgicus


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Homo erectus million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. (Prometheus Unbound)

  • Invented new tool: handaxe

    • Larger tools, required more preparation than Oldowan choppers

  • First hominids to make tools to a predetermined shape

  • First hominids to make task-specific tools

    • Some tools used for butchering animal carcasses; others for working with wood; still others for use with veggies

  • Probably the first hominids to use, perhaps even control, fire

    • Hints of use at South African site between 1.5 - 1.0 m.y.a.

    • Fire allows cooking foods (makes meat and veggie consumption easier)

    • Useful to lengthen the day into the night

    • Keeps predators away

    • Warmth


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Homo erectus million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Why are these hominids so important?

  • ?? FIRST TO LEAVE AFRICA ??

  • COMPETENT TOOLMAKERS: Acheulean

    • 1st appeared 1.5 m.y.a.

    • Shaping entire stone to stereotyped form

    • Bifacial flaking

    • Butcher animal carcasses / digging tools / cutting & scraping

  • FIRST to USE/CONTROL FIRE (ca. 1 m.y.a.)

  • FIRST SYSTEMATIC HUNTING of medium-size game animals


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Homo erectus million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Morphology

  • Body Size and Shape

    • Basically modern, but more muscled and robust

    • Some individuals very tall (boy from Nariokotome, Lake Turkana) = 6 feet tall when an adult

  • Large brain: 700 - 1200 cc (overlaps moderns)

  • Long, low with receding forehead & large browridges

  • Midfacial pronathism / powerfully built jaw


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Boy from Nariokotome million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Very tall hominid at 1.5 mya

  • About 8 years old when he died

  • 5’ tall (6 feet @ maturity)

  • Legs relatively long in proportion to body as compared to earlier hominids

  • Well adapted to staying cool in hot, dry climates

  • Face, molar teeth, chewing muscles smaller than earlier hominids (softer, high-quality - perhaps cooked - foods)

  • Skull-to-pelvis proportions of females: give birth to relatively immature infants

    • Implications: long infancy-childhood dependency period: good for learning


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Homo georgicus million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. ?? 1st Hominid to Leave Africa ??

  • Dmanisi, Georgia (Caucasus Mtns)

  • 1.7 - 1.8 m.y.a.

  • Late H. habilis or early H. erectus

  • Brain size: 600-750 cc

  • Stature: 1.5 m

  • Oldowan tool technology


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THE RISE OF MODERN HUMANS million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

From

Homo erectus

To

Homo sapiens

Via

Homo heidelbergensis


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Homo heidelbergensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Ancestor to Neanderthals and Us

Name given to a range of specimens from about 800,000 years ago to the appearance of Homo neanderthalensis in Europe and anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Africa


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Homo heidelbergensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • 1st appears ca. 1 mya - 800 k.y.a. - none later in time than 500 - 300 k.y.a.

  • Africa, Europe (but not Asia)

  • Brain larger than erectus: 1200-1500 cc

  • Skull more rounded, less robust but still with large brow ridges, receding foreheads & no chins


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Homo heidelbergensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. First BIG GAME hunters

  • By 500 k.y.a. using wooden spears to hunt large game

  • Bodybuilder physiques

    • Pronounced muscle markings

    • Thick layers of hard bone around central marrow cavities

While heidelbergensis lived in Africa, other hominid species lived elsewhere: H. erectus continued successfully in eastern Asia and in Europe H. antecessor was living in Spain by 800,000 years ago.


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Homo neanderthalensis million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. European descendants of H. heidelbergensis

Female

Dark haired male

Red-headed male

Young boy


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N million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

E

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Neanderthals: Ancestors Or Dead Ends? million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Unique species that lived in Europe, southwest Asia, central Asia between 200,000 0 30,000 years ago (k.y.a.)

  • Much controversy over their fate AND their relationship to anatomically modern humans (H. sapiens)

No other aspect of human evolution has generated as much public interest for so long a time as the story of the Neanderthals.


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Neanderthals: Earlier Views million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

Until very recently, Neanderthals were most often depicted as brutish, dimwitted, “half man . . . half beast.”


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Neanderthals: Recent Views million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.


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Neanderthals: Recent Views million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.


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Neanderthal Cranial Morphology million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.


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Neanderthal million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. CranialMorphology

  • Cranial cap: 1400 cc

  • Large midface / very big nose that projects forward

  • Large gap behind 3rd molar

  • Large protruding occipital bone

  • Marked neck muscle attachments on skull

  • Very large incisor teeth

  • No chin

  • Double-arched brow ridge


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Neanderthals & Modern Humans Compared million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Modern human child (left) and Neanderthal child (right)

  • Neanderthals differ from anatomically modern H. sapiens in a suite of cranial features:

    • low but elongated and broadened braincase

    • prominent brow ridges

    • Occipital bun

    • a depression on the surface of the occipital bone at the back of the skull

    • large face with rounded orbits, wide nasal aperture

    • mandible with a receding chin region

    • retromolar space in adult individuals


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A Comparison: Side by Side With A Relative million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Brain case: low vs. high

  • Nasal opening: large vs. narrow

  • Collarbone: long vs. shorter

  • Rib cage: conical vs. cylindrical

  • Limb bones: thick-walled vs. thin-walled

  • Hand bones: robust vs. slender

  • Trunk: short vs. long

  • Hips: flaring vs. narrow

  • Joint surfaces: large vs. smaller

  • Lower leg: shorter vs. longer

  • Bowed limbs vs. straight limbs


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Us vs. Them million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.


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Explanation for Neanderthal Morphology million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Cold weather & harsh climate adaptations

  • Strenuous hunting


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Neanderthal culture million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.


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Neanderthal Culture: Stone tools million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Mousterian toolkit

    • Effective but simple

    • Changed little over 100,000 yrs.

    • Trimmed flint nodules

      • Strike-off lots of flakes

        • predetermined form - retouched)

    • Tool specialization

      • Skin & meat preparation

      • Hunting

      • Woodworking

      • Hafting

    • Some wooden tools (including thrusting spears)


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Levallois Flint Knapping million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Careful retouching of flakes taken off cores

  • Specific uses of flakes

    • Animal butchering

    • Woodworking

    • Bone & antler carving

    • Working of animal hides


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Neanderthal Culture: Subsistence million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Extremely successful hunters

    • Jabbing spears (not thrown) w/ hafted stone points

    • No long-distance hunting (locally available game)

      • Cave bear, Deer, Woolly rhinoceros, mammoth, wild cattle, reindeer, horse, wild ass, ibex, saiga

    • Neanderthal skeletons often show fractures

  • Fairly efficient gatherers

    • Berries, greens, roots - limited time frame (few weeks)


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Neanderthal Culture million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Settlements

  • Open sites, caves, rock-shelters

  • Built structures / windbreaks

  • Controlled use of fire: warmth


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Neanderthal Social Behavior million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.


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Neandertal Cannibalism million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Ritualistic or Nutritional Purposes

  • Possible evidence

    • France & Croatia

    • Fragmentary bones show stone-tool cut marks similar to those found on butchered game animals

    • Some long bones smashed to get marrow


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Burying the Dead million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Intentional

  • Some grave offerings: stone tools, animal bones (flowers?)


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Burying The Dead million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Intentional human burials

  • Some graves contain offerings - stone tools, animal bones (flowers?)

  • Reasons for burial?


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The Fate of the Neanderthals: Part I million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

By 30 k.y.a. no more Neanderthals. Why?

  • Sudden climatic change

    • Large game dying out and Neanderthals hunting methods not suitable?

  • Out competedby anatomically modern H. sapiens?

    • Better energy extraction methods

    • Shorter gestation periods

  • Died due to diseasesbrought by anatomically modern H. sapiens?

  • Genetically absorbedinto anatomically modern H. sapiens populations without significant genetic contributions to modern populations?


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The Fate of the Neanderthals: Part II million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Interbred with anatomically modern H. sapiens to produce modern Europeans?

    • Four-year-old child buried in a Portuguese rock-shelter 25,000 to 24,500 years ago

    • Czech Republic, male, mixture of Neanderthal and a.m. Homo sapiens features

Recent genetic data indicates no admixture


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In Our Own Image million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Idaltu: Ethiopia / 160,000 y.a.

  • Cro-Magnon: Europe / 45,000 y.a.


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Early Anatomically Modern million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. H. sapiensDefined Morphologically, Not Behaviorally

  • Tall, almost vertical forehead

  • Smallest teeth (relative to body size) of all the hominids)

  • Small to minimal brow ridges

  • No retromolar gap (we get impacted wisdom teeth)

  • Cranial cap.: 1350 (1000 - 2000)

  • There is a chin, a uniquely modern human trait

  • High rounded cranium : widest point on sides of parietals


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Complexity of Culture million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE. Begins about 50 k.y.a.

  • Blade tools: increased technological abilities

  • Atlatl

  • Small bone & ivory tools

  • Fishhooks

  • Tailored skin clothing

  • Bow and arrow

  • Nets, snares

  • Expansion into new eco-niches

    • Especially plant foods / marine foods

  • Ubiquitous burial of the dead

  • Postmortem modification common

  • Art and symbolism


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Spreading Out million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.


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Art million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

Cave paintings

and

“venus” figurines


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Origins of Moderns million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.

  • Lots of debate

  • Several major theories

    • Recent African origin

    • Multiregional origins

    • Multiple dispersal origins


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Whole Language million-year-old journey of the family called HOMINIDAE.


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