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Estimating abundance and distribution of rare species. Traditional and novel methods. Outline:. Data collection. Data analysis. Invasive Non-invasive. Simple Complex. Invasive data collection methods. Trapping. Pros:. Cons:. Gives great individual data Mass Sex Condition Age

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outline
Outline:

Data collection

Data analysis

  • Invasive
  • Non-invasive
  • Simple
  • Complex
trapping
Trapping

Pros:

Cons:

  • Gives great individual data
    • Mass
    • Sex
    • Condition
    • Age
    • Parasite load
  • Can be dangerous to animal or researcher
  • Hard to get info on a lot of individuals
  • Requires a lot of work
  • Requires drugs
  • Lot of incidental captures
  • Requires bait
radio telemetry
Radio telemetry

Pros:

Cons:

  • Gives great location and demographic data
  • Requires a lot of manual labor
  • Equipment expensive
  • Requires a lot of trapping
  • Can be dangerous to animal and researcher
  • Hard to get info on a lot of individuals
gps telemetry
GPS telemetry

Pros:

Cons:

  • The absolute best location data*
  • Minimal man-hours (compared to radio telemetry)
  • VERY expensive
  • Requires a lot of trapping
  • Only available for larger animals
  • Hard to get info on a lot of individuals
  • Can be dangerous to animal
game cameras
Game cameras

Pros

Cons

  • Relatively cheap
  • Less man-power required
  • Little risk to animal or researcher
  • No individual information*
  • Requires bait
hair snares
Hair snares

Pros

Cons

  • Really cheap
  • Less man-power required
  • Little risk to animal or researcher
  • Easier to get individual information
  • Requires bait
  • Hairs can be mis-identified
track plates tubes
Track plates / tubes

Pros

Cons

  • Really cheap
  • Less man-power required
  • Little risk to animal or researcher
  • No individual information
  • Requires bait
  • Tracks can be mis-identified
track transects
Track transects

Pros

Cons

  • Really cheap
  • Little risk to animal or researcher
  • Unbiased habitat use (no bait)
  • Tracks easier to identify
  • More detailed information
  • No individual information
  • Moderate man-power required
  • Requires particular environmental conditions
scat excrement surveys
Scat / Excrement surveys

Pros

Cons

  • Really cheap
  • Little risk to animal or researcher
  • No bait
  • Lots of information
  • Can identify individual
  • Moderate man-power required
  • Hard to find scat in field – typically use roads
  • Can mis-identify scat
  • Best for larger animals
vocalizations
Vocalizations

Pros

Cons

  • Sometimes cheap
  • Little risk to animal or researcher
  • No bait
  • Sometimes expensive
  • No individual information
  • Moderate man-power required
  • Can mis-identify calls
  • Won’t work well with some species
slide42
Black bear scat
  • Eastern-spotted skunk scat
  • Weasel scat
  • Mountain lion scat
  • Cheetah scat
  • Invasive Pythons
  • Invasive Root fungi
detection dogs3
Detection dogs

Pros

Cons

  • Increased data
  • Little risk to target species or researcher
  • No bait
  • Expensive (but cheap per sample)
  • May not get individual information
  • Moderate man-power required
  • Low risk of mis-identification
genetics
Genetics

Pros

Cons

  • Decreases identification errors
  • Can provide individual information
  • Expensive (but getting cheaper)
  • DNA doesn’t always amplify
  • Some potential for error
data analysis

Data analysis

Abundance

abundance mna
Abundance – MNA
  • Easy
  • Only accurate with high detectability
  • Requires intense sampling
  • Each individual counted (census)
  • Assumes no one is missed
abundance mark recapture
Abundance – Mark-recapture
  • Software available for analyses
  • Accurate with low to moderate detectability
  • Requires less sampling effort
  • Complicated
  • Statistical model that estimates population size
  • Accounts for detectability
  • Uses maximum likelihood
data analysis1

Data analysis

Habitat use

data analysis habitat analysis
Data analysis – Habitat analysis
  • Use vs. non-use
  • Use vs. availability
  • Non-use vs. availability
  • Occupancy
    • Use vs. non-use accounting for detectability
habitat analysis use vs non use
Habitat analysis – Use vs. non-use
  • Relatively easy
  • Estimates absolute probability of habitat use
  • Requires high detectability
  • Comparison of ‘used’ points vs. ‘unused’ points
  • Logistic regression
  • Assumes non-use is detected perfectly
habitat analysis use vs availability
Habitat analysis – Use vs. availability
  • Relatively easy
  • Does not require high detectability
  • Can only estimate relative probability of use
  • Cannot estimate absolute probability of use
  • Comparison of ‘used’ points vs. ‘available’ points
  • Logistic regression
  • Makes no assumptions about non-use
habitat analysis occupancy
Habitat analysis - Occupancy
  • Works with low to moderate detectability
  • Estimates absolute probability of habitat use
  • Software available
  • Complicated
  • Comparison of ‘used’ points vs. ‘available’ points
  • Accounts for imperfect detection
  • Uses maximum likelihood
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