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Essential Introduction to Computers. and How to Purchase a Personal Computer. What is a Computer?. An electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can: Accept data (input) Process the data according to specified rules (process)

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essential introduction to computers

Essential Introduction to Computers

and How to Purchase a Personal Computer

what is a computer
What is a Computer?
  • An electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can:
    • Accept data (input)
    • Process the data according to specified rules (process)
    • Produce results (output)
    • Store the results for future use (storage)

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

what does a computer do
What Does a Computer Do?

Four basic operations

information processing cycle

  • Input
  • Process
  • Output
  • Storage

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

what does a computer do1
What Does a Computer Do?
  • Data:

A collection of unprocessed items.

    • Text
    • Numbers
    • Images
    • Audio
    • Video
  • Information:

coveys meaning and is useful to one or more people.

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

what does a computer do2
What Does a Computer Do?
  • Computer user:
    • people who use the computer or the information that it provides
    • Also called end user or user

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

how does a computer know what to do
How Does a Computer Know What to Do?

Computer Program or Software:

  • A computer must be given a detailed set of instructions.
  • These programs or software must be stored or installed on the computer.

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

what are the components of a computer
What are the Components of a Computer?
  • The six primary components of a computer
    • input devices
    • the processor (control unit and arithmetic/logic unit)
    • memory
    • output devices
    • storage devices
    • communications devices
  • System Unit:

The processor, memory, and storage devices are housed in a box-like

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

input devices
Input Devices
  • input device:

is any hardware component that allows you to enter data, programs, commands, and user responses into a computer

    • A keyboard is an input device that contains keys you press to enter data into the computer
    • A stylus is a small metal or plastic device that looks like a ballpoint pen, but uses pressure instead of ink to write, draw, or make selections
    • Smart phones often include a digital camera so users can send pictures and videos to others

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

input devices1
Input Devices
  • Mouse:

is a pointing device that fits comfortably under the palm of your hand

    • Pointer or mouse pointer
    • Most notebook computers come with a touchpad

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

system unit
System Unit
  • The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data
    • Motherboard (system board) is the main circuit board of the system unit
    • The processor (Central Processing Unit or CPU) interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
      • Arithmetic/logic unit performs the logical and arithmetic process
      • Control unit interprets the instructions

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

system unit1
System Unit
  • Memory (Random Access Memory or RAM) consists of electronic components that temporarily stores instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processed data
  • Memory location (byte) stores one charcter
      • Kilobyte (K or KB) is 1,000 memory locations
      • Megabyte (MB) is one million memory locations
      • Gigabyte (GB) is one billion memory locations

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

output devices
Output Devices
  • Output devices make the information resulting from processing available for use
    • An impact printer prints by striking an inked ribbon against the paper
    • Nonimpact printers form characters by means other than striking a ribbon against paper
      • Inkjet
        • Photo printers – photo-quality pictures ideal for home and small business use
      • Laser

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

display devices
Display Devices
  • A display device is an output device that visually conveys text, graphics, and video information
    • Individual picture elements on the surface of the screen are called pixels
    • Monitor are usually packaged as a separate unit
      • Flat panel monitor
        • LCD (liquid crystal display) most popular
      • CRT (cathode ray tube)

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

storage devices
Storage Devices
  • A storage device is used to store instructions, data, and information when they are not being used in memory
    • Magnetic disks use magnetic particles to store items on a disk’s surface
                • Formatting divides the disk into tracks and sectors
                • Sectors pie shaped and brakes the tracks into small arcs
                • Track is a narrow recording band that form a full circle
                • Portable storage medium can be removed from the computer and carried with you

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

storage devices1
Storage Devices
  • A hard disk is a storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that magnetically store data, instructions, and information
    • Head crash when a read/write head touches a platter causing loss of data or the entire hard drive (dust, smoke, etc.)
    • Backup is a duplicate of a file, program, or disk

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

storage devices2
Storage Devices
  • A floppy disk is an inexpensive portable storage medium
  • Floppy disk drive can read from or write to a floppy disk
  • Access time is the time required to access and retrieve data (175-300 milliseconds)

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

storage devices3
Storage Devices
  • An optical disc is a portable storage medium that consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer that is written and read by a laser
    • CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory) cannot write or erase
    • CD-R (compact disc-recordable) write only once, cannot erase
    • CD-RW (compact disc-rewriteable) write and rewrite multiple times
    • DVD-ROM (digital versatile disk-read only memory)
    • DVD-R, DVD+R (recordable)
    • DVD-RW, DVD+RW erase and write
    • BD-RE (Blu-ray) high quality erase and write
    • HD-DVD-RW high quality erase and write

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

storage devices4
Storage Devices
  • Tape is a magnetically coated ribbon of plastic housed in a tape cartridge
    • Tape drive is used to read and write to the tape

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

storage devices5
Storage Devices
  • Miniature mobile storage media are rewriteable media.
    • flash memory card consists of electronics and contain no moving parts
    • USB flash drive (pen drive, thumb drive) plugs into a USB port

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

storage devices6
Storage Devices
  • A smart card stores data in a thin microprocessor embedded in the card

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

communications devices
Communications Devices
  • A communications device is a hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers
    • Transmission media include telephone lines, cables, cellular radio, networks and satellites
      • Wireless means there are no physical lines or wires

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

computer software
Computer Software
  • System software consists of programs to control the operations of computer equipment
    • Operating system tells the computer how to perform the functions of loading, storing, and executing application programs and how to transfer data
      • Microsoft Windows Vista
      • Microsoft Windows XP
      • Apple Mac OS X
      • Linux
    • Booting is when the computer is turned on and the operating system is loaded into the computer’s memory from auxiliary storage
    • Graphical user interface (GUI) provide visual cues
      • Icon representation of a program, file, or document

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

computer software1
Computer Software
  • Application software consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks
    • Word processing – create, edit, format, and print documents
    • Spreadsheet – add, subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows and columns of numbers
    • Database – enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner
    • Presentation graphics – create slides for use in a presentation to a group

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

networks and the internet
Networks and the Internet
  • A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly, via communications devices and transmission media
    • Local area network
    • Wide area network

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

networks and the internet1
Networks and the Internet
  • The world’s largest network is the Internet, which is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals
    • Internet service provider (ISP)
    • Online service provider (OSP)
    • Wireless Internet service provider (WISP)

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

networks and the internet2
Networks and the Internet
  • The World Wide Web contains billions of documents called Web pages
    • Web page contain text, graphicsaudio, videos, and connections or links
    • Web site is a collection of web pages
    • Web browser software program
    • Uniform Resource Locator (URL)address of web page
    • Hypertext transfer protocol (http://) communication standard
    • Web server is the computer that delivers the requested web pages

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

networks and the internet3
Networks and the Internet
  • When you conduct business activities online, you are participating in electronic commerce, also known as e-commerce
    • Business to Consumer (B2C)
    • Consumer to Consumer (C2C)
    • Business to Business (B2B)

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques

assignments make sure your name is on all papers
Assignments - Make sure your name is on all papers.
  • Read: Essential Introduction to Computers - pages COM1 – COM23
  • Read: How to Purchase a Personal Computer - pages COM24 – COM38
  • Learn it Online - page com39 www.scsite.com/ic7/learnPractice Test (20 points) make sure your name is on the test before you click grade.
  • Print when you are happy with your score. You should at least try for 80% (16/20) 20 points
  • Open, Save, Complete and Print
  • Short Answer – 10 points
  • True/False – 10 points
  • Multiple Choice – 10 points

Microsoft Office 2007: Introductory Concepts and Techniques