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Apartheid 1960-1980. Sharpeville. Robert Sobukwe formed the PAC in 1959, considering the ANC too moderate, cautious, too communist influenced and too multi-racial.

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Sharpeville
Sharpeville

Robert Sobukwe formed the PAC in 1959, considering the ANC too moderate, cautious, too communist influenced and too multi-racial.

 21 March 1960 both ANC and PAC staged simultaneous peaceful demonstrations. In Orlando, Sobukwe and his demonstrators were arrested (spent nine years in prison). 55km away, a large noisy crowd surrounded the police station at Sharpeville and were fired on. 69 killed 180 injured, mostly in the back. At the Cape a large crowd were baton charged and fired upon by Police. Two were killed, 49 wounded.

 So began the international condemnation of Apartheid.

 30 March 30 000 marchers led by PAC leader Philip Kgosana converged on Parliament House in Cape Town. Given assurances he could meet with the Justice Minister the next day if the mod dispersed, Kgosana returned to be immediately arrested.

 The government decided on total repression: A state of emergency declared, the army reserve was called up and thousands of ANC and PAC leaders were arrested and the parties outlawed.

 The time for peaceful protest had passed.


Mandela
Mandela

Mandela formed the ‘Spear of the People’ the MK, an underground terrorist group of the ANC. 1960

Concentrated on sabotage and he avoidance of the loss of life. Chief targets power stations and government offices. Mandela travelled to the UK and other African States for advice, including guerrilla training in Ethiopia.

He was captured in 1962, and with his link to MK not known, he was sentenced to a five-year prison sentence for ‘leaving the country without permission.’

Raids on the MK headquarters in 1963 saw the arrest of key leadership and evidence linking Mandela to the MK. Charged with ‘treason, recruiting and training for sabotage and guerrilla warfare for the purpose of violent revolution,’ Mandela, Walter Sisulu and six others were found guilty and sentenced the life imprisonment.


International reaction
International Reaction

By 1968 virtually all of the rest of Africa, except South Africa had black governments.

In 1960 British PM Harold Macmillan addressed the South African parliament and made it clear that his government and the Commonwealth found the Apartheid policies unacceptable. Verwoerd responded by holding an all-white referendum in 1961 and South Africa voted to become a Republic and subsequently withdrew from the Commonwealth.

Worldwide disgust at Apartheid grew in the 1960s

  • ·        World wide anti-apartheid groups were formed

  • ·        Sporting bans took effect

  • ·        Trade and cultural boycotts

      Verwoerd and his successor Vorster inflamed international opinion

    ·        Refused entry of the Maoris from the All-Blacks Rugby team

    ·        Refused entry to cricketer Basil D’Oliveira, a Cape Coloured who had gained selection in the English cricket team.

    In 1963, the black African nations met to form the OAU, making the abolition of Apartheid its number one aim.


Why was the world unable the make south africa change
Why was the world unable the make South Africa Change?

South Africa with a booming economy between 1961 and 1970. It was very strong.

Huge foreign investment esp US, GB, WGER and JAP.

More valuable minerals than any other nation after the USSR.

Major producer of rare minerals vital to US and EURO industries

Despite the anti-Apartheid rhetoric, these nations would not back UN or OAU schemes to overthrow the white government. They had too much to lose.

Its nears neighbours were depended on SA for providing employment and many of the important rail and road links carrying the vital imports and exports for nations like Mozambique, Botswana and Lesotho went vis Sa ports at Durbin and Cape Town.

Being economically strong meant that is had the most powerful and fully resourced army in Africa.

The Cold War

SA became a US pawn in the Cold War. The US needed a strong capitalist SA for its minerals and for trade and it commanded such an important strategic sea route for oil shipments. Black activism and the calls to end Apartheid became therefore linked to Communism.


1960 80 economic and social trends
1960-80. Economic and Social Trends

Up until the end of the 1970s and into the 80s SA enjoyed economic prosperity.

Whites and the economy

·        By 1970s Afrikaners were now city dwellers and on par in wages with English speakers.

Blacks

·        Wages hardly risen between 1948-1970

·        But saw rapid rise after 1970: trade unions, international pressure, needed well paid workers to fuel the economy. 60% increase between 1970 and 1986 while white wages rose only 18%

·        Biggest problem in 1980s and 90s was high black unemployment and severe poverty in large pockets due to the forced removals policy.


Impact on society 1960 80
Impact on Society 1960-80

White Society

·        Lack of actual contact between Blacks and Whites

·        Spoke separate languages, attended different schools and lived in different suburbs

·        A white’s understanding of blacks was clouded by both distance and the servant-master relationship.

·        Spacious homes, swimming pools, large gardens and a ready supply of servants

·        High car ownership. Strong US and GBR cultural influences and aspirations


Impact on society 1960 801
Impact on Society 1960 -80

Cultural Isolation

·        Television banned until 1976. Radio controlled

·        Few Afrikaners travelled overseas

·        Rugby and Cricket mad

·        From mid 1970s a more aware white society began to emerge. Better educated women, more overseas travel, TV.

·        Growth of white liberal newspapers both British and Afrikaner and political groups who were openly critical of apartheid.


Impact on black society 1960 80
Impact on Black Society 1960-80

Most blacks have vivid memories of white superiority

As time passed fewer blacks were prepared to go on enduring humiliation in silence

These were the so-called Black elite. Most of those employed settled in jobs in the cities which required education and skills – clerks, civil servants, teachers, nurses, builders and taxi drivers.

They lived in the more pleasant areas of the townships, they might own a car

Church membership was important, choirs and social clubs also.

 Black society however remained divided:

  • Semi skilled workers also increased in numbers and in wealth. Reggae and soccer their passion.

  • Many millions of others struggled to make a living. Many served as maids or garden ‘boys’ or worked long hours in the mines. Their fortunes rose and fell depending on job availability. Many lost their jobs if they failed some aspect of the pass laws.

  • The Tsotis: terrifying gangs of young men who terrorised the townships along with gangs of criminals who controlled large areas of the township through protection rackets and other illicit activities


Impact on black society 1960 801
Impact on Black Society 1960-80

The Dispossed

 The full effects of Verwoerd’s separation policy did not appear until the late 1970s and early 1980s. It became apparent to many whites that this policy was not going to work

1970s saw the reduction of blacks employed by white farmers who had mechanised their farms or changed their farming habits. As such 2 million blacks were forcibly removed form their homes into greater poverty, suffering and despair. Violence erupted in the 1980s as a consequence.


Impact of re location 1960 80
Impact of Re-location 1960-80

Example 1: Welcome Valley Resettlement Camp.

·        Not enough water

·        Infertile land

·        no work or industry within daily reach

·        disease and the constant edge

·        of starvation

 Example 2: Unibel

·        squatter camp of 25 000 near Cape Town.

·        Government decided that they should move to the Bantustan of Ciskei 100s of km away and flattened the camp with bulldozers.

·        Most simply melted away into neighbouring squatter camps nearby.


Impact on black society 1960 802
Impact on Black Society 1960-80

Example 3: Glenmore

·        In 1979 the Government decided to the entire inhabitants of Colchester, a relatively nice area, where there was work and real community, 200 km to Glenmore. Their homes were destroyed their furniture and possessions smashed. At Glenmore housing and sanitation was poor.

The Townships

·        Some grew at an amazing pace.

·        Some Bantustans had their areas increased to take in areas to include townships near white factories so blacks could commute to work

·        Botshabelo 50mkm from Bloemfontein had a population of 300 000 by 1985 while the township of Kwandebele population 300 000 was heavily dependant on Pretoria 100km away for employment.

·        Some workers, ferried in blacks only buses, were faced with a six hour per day travel of travel

·        With such overcrowding in the townships people ate less and few townships had running water or electricity to each of the houses. Coal was too expensive so wood had to be used for heating and cooking.