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Chapter 12 Stellar Evolution

Chapter 12 Stellar Evolution

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Chapter 12 Stellar Evolution

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  1. Chapter 12Stellar Evolution

  2. “We are stardust Billion year old carbon We are golden” Woodstock by Joni Mitchell

  3. Units of Chapter 12 Leaving the Main Sequence Evolution of a Sun-like Star The Death of a Low-Mass Star Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun Supernova Explosions Observing Stellar Evolution in Star Clusters The Cycle of Stellar Evolution

  4. Question 1 a) red giants. b) pulsars. c) black holes. d) white dwarfs. e) red dwarfs. Stars like our Sun will end their lives as

  5. Question 1 a) red giants. b) pulsars. c) black holes. d) white dwarfs. e) red dwarfs. Stars like our Sun will end their lives as Low-mass stars eventually swell into red giants, and their cores later contract into white dwarfs.

  6. Question 2 a) in the Big Bang. b) by nucleosynthesis in massive stars. c) in the cores of stars like the Sun. d) within planetary nebulae. e) They have always existed. Elements heavier than hydrogen and Helium were created

  7. Question 2 a) in the Big Bang. b) by nucleosynthesis in massive stars. c) in the cores of stars like the Sun. d) within planetary nebula e) They have always existed. Elements heavier than hydrogen and helium were created Massive stars create enormous core temperatures as red supergiants, fusing helium into carbon, oxygen, and even heavier elements.

  8. Leaving the Main Sequence During its stay on the main sequence, any fluctuations in a star’s condition are quickly restored; the star is in equilibrium.

  9. Question 3 a) its core begins fusing iron. b) its supply of hydrogen is used up. c) the carbon core detonates, and it explodes as a Type I supernova. d) helium builds up in the core, while the hydrogen-burning shell expands. e) the core loses all of its neutrinos, so all fusion ceases. The Sun will evolve away from the main sequence when

  10. Question 3 a) its core begins fusing iron. b) its supply of hydrogen is used up. c) the carbon core detonates, and it explodes as a Type I supernova. d) helium builds up in the core, while the hydrogen-burning shell expands. e) the core loses all of its neutrinos, so all fusion ceases. The Sun will evolve away from the main sequence when When the Sun’s core becomes unstable and contracts, additional H fusion generates extra pressure, and the star will swell into a red giant.

  11. Leaving the Main Sequence Eventually, as hydrogen in the core is consumed, the star begins to leave the main sequence. Its evolution from then on depends very much on the mass of the star: Low-mass stars go quietly. High-mass stars go out with a bang! End times 1 End times 2

  12. Evolution of a Sun-like Star Even while on the main sequence, the composition of a star’s core is changing.

  13. Evolution of a Sun-like Star As the fuel in the core is used up, the core contracts; when it is used up the core begins to collapse. Hydrogen begins to fuse outside the core.

  14. Evolution of a Sun-like Star Stages of a star leaving the main sequence.

  15. Evolution of a Sun-like Star Stage 9: The red giant branch: As the core continues to shrink, the outer layers of the star expand and cool. It is now a red giant, extending out as far as the orbit of Mercury. Despite its cooler temperature, its luminosity increases enormously due to its large size.

  16. Evolution of a Sun-like Star The red giant stage on the H–R diagram

  17. Question 4 a) when T-Tauri bipolar jets shoot out. b) in the middle of the main sequence stage. c) in the red giant stage. d) during the formation of a neutron star. e) in the planetary nebula stage. The helium flash occurs

  18. Question 4 a) when T-Tauri bipolar jets shoot out. b) in the middle of the main sequence stage. c) in the red giant stage. d) during the formation of a neutron star. e) in the planetary nebula stage. The helium flash occurs When the collapsing core of a red giant reaches high enough temperatures and densities, helium can fuse into carbon quickly – a helium flash.

  19. Evolution of a Sun-like Star Stage 10: Helium fusion Once the core temperature has risen to 100,000,000 K, the helium in the core starts to fuse. The helium flash: Helium begins to fuse extremely rapidly; within hours the enormous energy output is over, and the star once again reaches equilibrium.

  20. Evolution of a Sun-like Star Stage 10 on the H–R diagram Horizontal branch lasts 10s of millions of years

  21. Evolution of a Sun-like Star Stage 11: Back to the giant branch: As the helium in the core fuses to carbon, the core becomes hotter and hotter, and the helium burns faster and faster. The star is now similar to its condition just as it left the main sequence, except now there are two shells.

  22. Evolution of a Sun-like Star The star has become a red giant for the second time.

  23. The Death of a Low-Mass Star This graphic shows the entire evolution of a Sun-like star. Such stars never become hot enough for fusion past carbon to take place.

  24. Question 5 a) T-Tauri stage. b) emission nebula stage. c) supernova stage. d) nova stage. e) planetary nebula stage. Stars gradually lose mass as they become white dwarfs during the

  25. Question 5 a) T-Tauri stage. b) emission nebula stage. c) supernova stage. d) nova stage. e) planetary nebula stage. Stars gradually lose mass as they become white dwarfs during the Low-mass stars forming white dwarfs slowly lose their outer atmospheres, and illuminate these gases for a relatively short time.

  26. The Death of a Low-Mass Star There is no more outward fusion pressure being generated in the core, which continues to contract. Stage 12: The outer layers of the star expand to form a planetary nebula.

  27. Question 6 a) electron degeneracy. b) neutron degeneracy. c) thermal pressure from intense core temperatures. d) gravitational pressure. e) helium-carbon fusion. The source of pressure that makes a white dwarf stable is

  28. Question 6 a) electron degeneracy. b) neutron degeneracy. c) thermal pressure from intense core temperatures. d) gravitational pressure. e) helium-carbon fusion. The source of pressure that makes a white dwarf stable is Electrons in the core cannot be squeezed infinitely close, and prevent a low-mass star from collapsing further.

  29. The Death of a Low-Mass Star • The star now has two parts: • A small, extremely dense carbon core • An envelope about the size of our solar system. • The envelope is called a planetary nebula, even though it has nothing to do with planets – early astronomers viewing the fuzzy envelope thought it resembled a planetary system.

  30. The Death of a Low-Mass Star Stages 13 and 14: White and black dwarfs: Once the nebula has gone, the remaining core is extremely dense and extremely hot, but quite small. It is luminous only due to its high temperature.

  31. The Death of a Low-Mass Star The small star Sirius B is a white dwarf companion of the much larger and brighter Sirius A.

  32. Question 7 a) an asteroid. b) a planet the size of Earth. c) a planet the size of Jupiter. d) an object the size of the Moon. e) an object the size of a sugar cube. In a white dwarf, the mass of the Sun is packed into the volume of

  33. Question 7 a) an asteroid. b) a planet the size of Earth. c) a planet the size of Jupiter. d) an object the size of the Moon. e) an object the size of a sugar cube. In a white dwarf, the mass of the Sun is packed into the volume of The density of a white dwarf is about a million times greater than normal solid matter.

  34. The Death of a Low-Mass Star The Hubble Space Telescope has detected white dwarf stars in globular clusters

  35. The Death of a Low-Mass Star As the white dwarf cools, its size does not change significantly; it simply gets dimmer and dimmer, and finally ceases to glow.

  36. The Death of a Low-Mass Star A nova is a star that flares up very suddenly and then returns slowly to its former luminosity.

  37. The Death of a Low-Mass Star A white dwarf that is part of a semi-detached binary system can undergo repeated novae.

  38. The Death of a Low-Mass Star Material falls onto the white dwarf from its main-sequence companion. When enough material has accreted, fusion can reignite very suddenly, burning off the new material. Material keeps being transferred to the white dwarf, and the process repeats.

  39. Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun It can be seen from this H–R diagram that stars more massive than the Sun follow very different paths when leaving the main sequence.

  40. Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun High-mass stars, like all stars, leave the main sequence when there is no more hydrogen fuel in their cores. The first few events are similar to those in lower-mass stars – first a hydrogen shell, then a core burning helium to carbon, surrounded by helium- and hydrogen-burning shells.

  41. Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun Stars with masses more than 2.5 solar masses do not experience a helium flash – helium burning starts gradually. A 4-solar-mass star makes no sharp moves on the H–R diagram – it moves smoothly back and forth.

  42. Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun The sequence below, of actual Hubble images, shows first a very massive star, then a very unstable red giant star as it emits a burst of light, illuminating the dust around it. Eta Carinae ~ 100 solar masses

  43. Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun A star of more than 8 solar masses can fuse elements far beyond carbon in its core, leading to a very different fate. Its path across the H–R diagram is essentially a straight line – it stays at just about the same luminosity as it cools off. Eventually the star dies in a violent explosion called a supernova.

  44. Evolution of Stars More Massive than the Sun

  45. Supernova Explosions A supernova is incredibly luminous, as can be seen from these curves – more than a million times as bright as a nova.

  46. Supernova Explosions A supernova is a one-time event – once it happens, there is little or nothing left of the progenitor star. There are two different types of supernovae, both equally common: Type I, which is a carbon-detonation supernova; Type II, which is the death of a high-mass star.

  47. Supernova Explosions Carbon-detonation supernova: White dwarf that has accumulated too much mass from binary companion If the white dwarf’s mass exceeds 1.4 solar masses, electron degeneracy can no longer keep the core from collapsing. Carbon fusion begins throughout the star almost simultaneously, resulting in a carbon explosion.

  48. Supernova Explosions This graphic illustrates the two different types of supernovae.

  49. Question 8 • a) hydrogen fusion shuts off. • b) uranium decays into lead. • c) iron in the core starts to fuse. • d) helium is exhausted in the outer layers. • e) a white dwarf gains mass. A Type II supernova occurs when

  50. Question 8 • a) hydrogen fusion shuts off. • b) uranium decays into lead. • c) iron in the core starts to fuse. • d) helium is exhausted in the outer layers. • e) a white dwarf gains mass. A Type II supernova occurs when Fusion of iron does not produce energy or provide pressure; the star’s core collapses immediately, triggering a supernova explosion.