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ADDERALL (the study drug). What is it? History Effects and Uses Concerns Future Plans. What exactly is it?. Proclaimed by some students to be the wonder drug, but controversy is rising Amphetamine combination used to treat (ADHD) & other disorders; popular college study tool

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adderall the study drug
ADDERALL (the study drug)
  • What is it?
  • History
  • Effects and Uses
  • Concerns
  • Future Plans
what exactly is it
What exactly is it?
  • Proclaimed by some students to be the wonder drug, but controversy is rising
  • Amphetamine combination used to treat (ADHD) & other disorders; popular college study tool
  • Racemic stereoisomers; dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d, & I-amphetamine asperate salts mixed in 3:1 ratio
  • Amphetamine - is basically speed
  • Meth-amphetamine - amphetamine with additional methyl group attached to its nitrogen (amine group)
  • Amphetamines
  • First synthesized; Germany 1887
  • In 1932, amphetamine was marketed as Benzedrine in over-the-counter inhaler to treat nasal congestion
  • In 1935 physicians successfully used it to treat narcolepsy
  • 1950s, legal manufactureing dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) & methamphetamine (Methedrine) used non medically by college students, truck drivers, and athletes.
  • In 1971, there were 31 amphetamine preparations being distributed by 15 pharmaceutical companies. Legal production over 12 billion pills / year.
  • For a 10 mg Tablet
  • 2.5 mg Dextroamphetamine Saccharate
  • 2.5 mg Amphetamine Aspartate
  • 2.5 Dextroamphetamine Sulfate
  • 2.5 mg Amphetamine Sulfate
adderall history
Adderall History
  • Originally marketed in 1960; NDA 11-522 filed for approval for Obesity; Rexar Pharmaceuticals distributed Obetrol till 1973, when FDA withdrew application for failed blind study test
  • Rexar continued distribution low-scale till sold 20 years later
  • Richwood Pharmaceuticals purchased Rexar, changed it’s named to Adderal; sold it for ADHD
  • FDA reapproved the drug in 1996 after tests were performed
  • Acquisition of Richwood Pharmaceuticals to Shire brought rights of Adderall
  • Shire founded in 1986 in UK by four entrepreneurs (Dennis Stephens, Harry Stratford, Peter Moriarty, and Geoff Hall)
  • Popularity sores - continues to increase on college campuses
  • 2003; Adderall XR introduced, a slow release form of original pill
  • 2005; Canada suspends marketing of Adderall XR due to SUD among children
experienced effects
Experienced Effects

EFFECTS

Positive:

Increased alertness, motivation, and talkativeness

Mood shift in Positive direction

Appetite suppressor; helps in Obesity cases

Used to treat depression

Negative:

Increased aggressiveness & paranoia

Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate

Withdrawal symptoms: Exhaustion and Insomnia if overdone or at night

Addiction in long term use

Neutral:

Flushes the body; diarrhea & dryness of mouth

Dilates pupils

  • There is significant improvement in the perfusion to the superior cortical surface of the Brain.
  • Note the marked decrease in perfusion to the surface of the Brain when the patient is doing a concentration task not on Adderall. The yellow and green colors show significant decreased activity in the top surface of the Brain.
concerns
Concerns
  • Those who shouldn’t take it
  • Heart defects

– have been linked to supraventricular tachycardia

  • Overactive thyroid
  • Glaucoma
  • Blood vessel diseases
  • Nursing Mother’s

– drugs get transferred in excreted milk

  • Due to tolerance build up increased dosages can lead to dependency
  • May cause existing mental illness's to worsen and possible psychosis; 10 or 11 recent cases
  • Most were on adderall for longer than 3 years
  • Other amphetamine drugs have proven to stunt bone growth
  • Alcohol mixtures can be dangerous

- alcohol is a (CNS) suppressant

  • Never take with any Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
  • could cause coma or Seizures
  • MAOI drugs include Nardil (phenelzine sulfate), Parnate (tranylcypromine sulfate), Marplan (isocarboxid),
the future
The Future
  • Amphetamines and their cousins will continue to be around
  • Ignorance; A mixture w/a different name inevitably introduced as new
  • College students will always find some substitute similar
  • Now approved legally; Adderall production of course continued
  • ADHD continues to be diagnosed
  • Illegally people have & will continue to make and abuse amphetamines