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Systemverbund. IRCS Denver, Colorado, October 06 - 08, 2008 Railway Suicide Prevention of Deutsche Bahn. Deutsche Bahn. Fritz Schröder. VBS. Frankfurt (Main) - Germany. IRSC Denver Railway Suicide Prevention of DB.

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slide1

Systemverbund

IRCS Denver, Colorado, October 06 - 08, 2008Railway Suicide Prevention of Deutsche Bahn

Deutsche Bahn

Fritz Schröder

VBS

Frankfurt (Main) - Germany

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver railway suicide prevention of db
IRSC Denver Railway Suicide Prevention of DB
  • Suicides encompass considerable problems for railway and have far-reaching consequences, like
    • Grief of the surviving relatives
    • Destiny of the seriously injuries persons with a failed suicide attempt
    • Traumatisation of the train drivers and the train staff
    • Loss of quality by delays and diversion because of track blockage after suicide
  • The department of Safety started a suicide prevention program with the aim to reduce the suicide rate in 2000

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver figures of railway suicide events
IRSC DenverFigures of railway suicide events

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver raiway suicide definition
IRSC DenverRaiway Suicide Definition

Suicides on railway or subway tracks are classified in the mortality recording according to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) category as:

“…intentional self-harm by jumping or lying in front of a moving object” (code X81)

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver percentage of fatal and nonfatal outcome of railway suicides 2003 2007
IRSC DenverPercentage of fatal and nonfatal outcome of railway suicides, 2003 – 2007

(n=3999*)

*) in one event can be more than one person involvedNumbers of events = 8722

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver classification of railway suicides
IRSC DenverClassification of Railway Suicides
  • „Jumpers“ –
  • persons jumping in front of trains (most often in railway stations under full public access)
  • „Liers“ –
  • persons awaiting the train by lying on the track (often death by decapitation)
  • „Wanderers“ –
  • walking or creeping along the track
  • „Touchers“ –
  • persons touching electrical facilities
  • Guggenheim & Weisman (1972)

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver absolute figures and rates of all suicides and railway suicides 1998 2007 germany
IRSC DenverAbsolute figures and rates of all suicides and railway suicides, 1998 - 2007 Germany

(per 100.000 inhabitants)

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver avarage of railway suicides 2003 2007 monthly distribution
IRSC DenverAvarage of Railway suicides 2003 - 2007 monthly distribution

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver monthly distribution of railway suicides 2003 2007 stratified for sex
IRSC DenverMonthly distribution of railway suicides 2003-2007, stratified for sex,

n=1187 *)

Percent x 10

*) Only for 1187 events the sex was known

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver avarage of railway suicides 2003 2007 weekday distribution
IRSC DenverAvarage of Railway suicides 2003 - 2007 weekday distribution

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver avarage of railway suicides 2003 2007 c hronologically order
IRSC DenverAvarage of Railway suicides 2003 - 2007 chronologically order

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver average failure days of the train driver 2004 2007
IRSC DenverAverage failure days of the train driver 2004 – 2007

down-time days

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver average time of track blocking per suicide in minutes
IRSC DenverAverage time of track blocking per suicide in minutes

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver preventive tools structural mesures
IRSC DenverPreventive tools – Structural mesures
    • Identification of hot spots
  • Analyse which places are chosen for a railway suicide more often
    • Our criteria for an hot spot:  1 case per year over a 5-year observation period
  • Track length approx. 34.000 km in 2007
  • probability >1 : 34.000 for a repeated occurance of a suicide event
  • on a track km

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver hot spot identification on the railway track system of db
IRSC DenverHot spot identification on the railway track system of DB

North Germany

South Germany

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver preventive tools structural mesures16
IRSC DenverPreventive tools – Structural mesures
    • „ Closing the exits“
  •  Complicate unauthorised access places to the tracks

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver preventive tools structural mesures17
IRSC DenverPreventive tools – Structural mesures

„Closing the exits“

Pictures of Haar (South Germany)

A place to die

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver preventive tools mass media approach
IRSC DenverPreventive tools - Mass media approach
  • Communicative measures
    • No reports on the suicide of the media
    • Introducing new rules for public announcements
    • Providing educational tools and open free access to prepared lectures on the importance of the Werther effect

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver preventive tools mass media approach19
IRSC DenverPreventive tools - Mass media approach

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver december 29th 2006 10 00 am
IRSC DenverDecember, 29th 2006 10:00 am

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver december 29th 2006 10 00 am21
IRSC DenverDecember, 29th 2006 10:00 am

29.12.2006 incidence

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver december 29th 2006 10 00 am22
IRSC DenverDecember, 29th 2006 10:00 am

29.12.2006 incidence

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

slide23
IRSC DenverPreventive tools -Counseling/education of staff with access to clients in railway stations

Gatekeepers

“…organizational gatekeepers whose contact with potentially vulnerable populations provides an opportunity to identify at-risk individuals and direct them to appropriate assessment and treatment.”

(Mann et al., 2005)

Successfully evaluated by Mishara (1999)

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

slide24
IRSC DenverPreventive tools - Counseling/education of staff with access to clients in railway stations
  • Increasing knowledge about suicidal behaviour
  • Being familiar with and alert for particular vulnerable time windows of excess risk for railway suicides
  • Increasing awareness of deviant behaviour
  • Encouraging staff members to be initative in case of being confronted with subjects at risk
  • Educating basic skills how to approach subjects at risk properly

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver preventive tools announcements
IRSC DenverPreventive tools - Announcements
  • Automatically transmitted announcements in trains and on station platforms along trunk lines may reach ten thousands of passengers.
  • Railway companies are advised to design announcement schedules that serve the purpose of informing passengers and bystanders about a critical incidence leading to a break-down of railway traffic and avoids promotion and further implementation of the railway suicide method
    • “…due to an emergency medicine operation on the track”

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver further activities
IRSC DenverFurther activities

in psychiatrically clinics

  • attempt to gain new knowledge from patients' files
  • Formation of score values to recognise patients who show intentions of a suicide

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver further activities27
IRSC DenverFurther activities
  • Member of the German National Suicide Prevention Council
  • Include Raiway Suicide Prevention in the EU research programm

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08

irsc denver
IRSC Denver

Thank you very much for your attention

Deutsche Bahn, Safety, Fritz Schröder, 06. - 08.10.08