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Curriculum Philosophy. Session Two. PLANNING CURRICULUN FOR THE FUTURE IS DIFFICULUT. MANY THINGS EED TO BE CONSIDERED WHAT PHILOSOPHY WHAT APPROACH AND HOW DO YOU DECIDE ON THE MATERIAL. Philosophy. Many believe that Curriculum is the foundation of education.

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planning curriculun for the future is difficulut
PLANNING CURRICULUN FOR THE FUTURE IS DIFFICULUT
  • MANY THINGS EED TO BE CONSIDERED
  • WHAT PHILOSOPHY
  • WHAT APPROACH AND HOW DO YOU DECIDE ON THE MATERIAL
philosophy
Philosophy
  • Many believe that Curriculum is the foundation of education.
  • A philosophy is the foundation of a curriculum, You need to know what you believe in before you can formulate a curriculum
philosophy1
Philosophy
  • Underneath almost everything we feel strongly about, we have a philosophy
    • Coaches- blitzing defenses, speed, power, a system versus star talent,
    • Relationships- there are certain beliefs people have as a must in a partner, it varies from person to person
    • Building a curriculum is no different
philosophy related to curriculum
Philosophy related to curriculum
  • Philosophy is central to curriculum
  • A philosophy of a particular school or district influence the goals, content and organization of its curriculum
  • Philosophy provides a framework for organizing schools and classrooms, it establishes:
    • What schools are for, processes to be used, and activities that schools should emphasize
philosophy related to curriculum1
Philosophy related to curriculum
  • People that are divided in philosophy can rarely work together in close proximity for long periods of time
  • An ideal curriculum workers have a philosophy that hopefully can be can be adjusted or modified as new best practices and information becomes available
try and determine yours
Try and Determine Yours
  • What parts of the following philosophies do you feel matches your thinking?
there are four major philosophies
There are Four Major Philosophies
  • Idealism
  • Realism
  • Pragmatist
  • Existentialism
  • You saw a brief introduction of these, based on their names, write some basic tenets that you feel would apply to these philosophies based on their title. (Do in a group, one philosophy per group)
idealism
Idealism
  • Plato is the father of Idealism
  • Others include Froebel ( kindergarten), Ralph Waldo Emerson, Theory Thoreau
  • It is the search of truth and enduring values,
  • Truth is more than physical senses, it is a mental process
idealism1
Idealism
  • In education, this means
  • Teachers should be teaching conceptual matters
  • Relating concepts to one another
  • Most important subjects are the most abstract-philosophy, theology, mathematics then history and literature also language
  • at the bottom is science- based only on senses and facts, not on pure thought
realism
Realism
  • Created to Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas
  • Realist view the world in terms of objects and matter
  • people come to know the world through their senses and their reason
  • Everything is derived from nature and is subject to its laws
realism1
Realism
  • In education
  • They have similar beliefs as far as course structure, believe in separate course for everything, feel abstract courses at the top of the educational food chain
  • However, they also value the sciences
  • The three Rs are a basic component
pragmatist
Pragmatist
  • Pragmatist believe in change and relativism
  • The truth is always changing, there is not anyone single universal truth
  • Believed in testing, looking for answers as important
  • Supported by William James, John Dewey
pragmatist1
Pragmatist
  • In education,
  • Problem solving is important
  • Teaching is more exploratory than explanatory: method more important than subject matter
existentialist
Existentialist
  • In existentialism, people constantly make choices and through these define themselves
  • We are what we choose and by our choices we define ourselves
  • Individualism is important
  • Primarily developed from Europe
existentialist1
Existentialist
  • In education, the existentialist stress personal fulfillment- they believe the most important knowledge is that of the human condition
  • Schools should provide choices for students to pursue their personal growth
  • Schools curriculum should provided experiences and subjects that lend themselves to individual freedom and choice
    • Ex. Arts, drama, literature music filmmaking,
    • They illustrate emotions, feelings and insight
existentialist2
Existentialist
  • Critics of existentialism, feel that it is impossible to achieve the goals of existentialist in school because schools are all about socializing students to be similar, it is about conformity and institutionalization
activity
Activity
  • In your groups look at each of the four philosophies, what implication would hat have when planning a curriculum
  • What are some features you would see in district that followed one of these philosophies?
educational philosophies
Educational Philosophies
  • Out of these four major philosophies four educational philosophies have grown out of these. They are:
    • Perennialsim
    • Essentilsim
    • Progressiveism
    • Reconstrcutionism
perennialism
Perennialism
  • The oldest and most conservative philosophy
  • Derived from realism
  • Dominated much of American curriculum
  • In elementary school:
    • pushes the three Rs
    • Moral and religious training
  • In secondary:
    • Latin, Greek, grammar logic and geometry
perennialism1
Perennialism
  • It stress traditional values
  • It teaches knowledge that has been thought for years
  • The reason is, a person’s function in society is the same today as it always was, why teach them differently? The aim is as it always was
  • The goal is to develop the rational person, uncover universal truths by developing a student's intellect and moral character
perennialism2
Perennialism
  • The curriculum is subject centered
  • It is logically organized and emphasizes language, literature mathematics and science
  • Stimulates discussion and student's rational powers
  • Lessons are taught using the Socratic method, oral expression, and lecture
perennialism3
Perennialism
  • The curriculum has little time for electives
  • Little time for vocational training
  • Character education is important
  • Some types of education still feel that this is the most effective way to build a curriculum and teach students- it is a rite if passage
  • Law school, medical schools
perennialism4
Perennialism
  • Permanent studies is an example of Perennialism
  • When students read and discuss great works of the past in order to cultivate their intellect
  • It is considered broad based and a means to cultivate the mind
  • Ex include reading, Plato, Aristotle, Shakespeare
perennialism5
Perennialism
  • The Paideia Proposal a book written by Adler, proposed three types of learning to improve the intellect
    • Organizational knowledge to be taught by didactic instruction
    • Basic learning skills- taught through coaching and presentation
    • Acquisition of values- to be taught by the Socratic method
perennialism6
Perennialism
  • The Paideia Proposal does not present any subject matter as an end in itself- you do not learn algebra to become a mathematician, you learn math to develop intellectual skills
  • Advocates for a universal curriculum
  • All students get the same subjects with high quality teaching
perennialism7
Perennialism
  • Allan Bloom feels that recent changes in our curriculum that focus on “cultural relativism”, quick fixes and “trivial pursuits” has degrade American education
  • He feels that we fail to develop critical thinking skills
  • He feels that a good old liberal Arts education is the answer to this
perennialism8
Perennialism
  • Supporters of Perennialism such as Charles Murray, feel that the west Western world) and America once were the best and brightest and made significant contribution in all academic areas
  • He now feels we are no longer the best and feels that part of the solution to become the best again is a move toward the Perennial curriculum
essentialism
Essentialism
  • A traditional philosophy- started in 1930’s became famous in 1950-60s ( after Sputnik)
  • In elementary school focus on three Rs
  • Secondary education is aimed at five subject areas:
    • English
    • Math
    • Science
    • World Language
    • History
essentialism1
Essentialism
  • In Essentialism Secondary education devalues subject areas such as :
      • Home economics
      • Music
      • Art
      • Physical education
      • Art

They feel they are frivolous and a waste of money but begrudgingly allow a few students to take them

essentialism2
Essentialism
  • Essentialist value
    • knowledge acquisition
    • Facts
    • Conceptual though
    • Problem solving
  • Essentialist feel all students should follow the same curriculum- its pace should be adjusted according to the needs of the students
  • Emphasis is placed on Science, math and new technologies
essentialism3
Essentialism
  • Essentialist feel that taking a student’s interest or social issues into account is wasteful
  • Teaching methods that rely on psychological theories are also wasteful
  • The teacher is a master of the course content and subject matter and a model worth emulation
  • The teacher is the authority, decides on the curriculum and exhibits high standards- the teacher needs to be respected.
essentialism4
Essentialism
  • The Essentialist view is reflected in the “A Nation at Risk Report” and the NCLB law in a more moderate form (Not far enough for essentialist)
essentialism5
Essentialism
  • Much of what we see today aligns with the essentialist philosophy
    • Standards. Statewide testing, standards before moving to another level ( in 13 states)
  • Provide bonuses to school, teachers and principals that achieve
  • Teachers standards-With this push for standards- came the push to have Teacher standards
essentialism6
Essentialism
  • Teachers standards-Many states added competency testing for beginning teachers ( 40 states)
  • A heavy emphasis has been placed on reading writing ( about two hours a day)
  • Math ( about one hour a day
  • Curriculum has become aligned with high stakes tests and has reduced electives
essentialism7
Essentialism
  • Although this push for standards seems basic, in some areas experts can not agree on what they should be
  • Also essentialist feel that pure information is not stressed enough- facts such as acid rain and bay of Biscay, allows for greater understanding because of background knowledge and facilitates communication
progressivism
Progressivism
  • Is a contemporary curriculum philosophy based on john Dewey’s beliefs.
  • Focus is on schools nurturing cooperation, self discipline
  • Since needs change constantly, no need to focus on a fixed body of knowledge
  • Focuses on How to think and not what to think
progressivism1
Progressivism
  • Activities are key to instruction
  • Constructivist methods
  • Interdisciplinary
  • Teachers are the leader of groups facilitating activities
  • Students ad teachers plan activities together
  • Teachers help students locate, evaluate analyze and interpret the data ( from activities)
progressivism2
Progressivism
  • Progressives reject rote learning, recitation and textbook authority, corporal punishment
  • The focus is on the learner and not the subject
  • There were radical progressives groups on either side- progressive extremist and lazier-faire- one side devalued knowledge and the other devalued adult authority over children
progressivism3
Progressivism
  • Relevant Curriculum- Although most followers of the progressive philosophy have lost prominence, the desire for relevant curriculum survived
  • Instruction should be associated from life experiences, students should be motivated and interested
progressivism4
Progressivism
  • Other aspects:
    • Individualization
    • Extend curriculum beyond the school ( work study programs- internships)
    • Electives and mini-courses
    • Courses that interest students- music through rap
progressivism5
Progressivism

The Humanistic perspective- this curriculum push was a reaction to the hard-line repressive curriculum that isolated students ( Perennialism and existentialism)

Builds on Maslow’s work and looks at affective outcomes rather than cognitive

The goal is to produce self actualized people- develop the whole person

progressivism6
Progressivism

The Humanistic perspective-

Some people feel this way now

They feel we overemphasize the cognitive, put lots of pressure on students do away with

Humanist seek more meaningful relationships between students and teachers

progressivism7
Progressivism
  • Eventually many educational leaders that believed in the Progressive philosophy called for a radical school reform
  • The felt that teachers disliked and distrusted their students
  • The considered schools highly discriminatory
    • The felt schools sort children for different jobs and perpetuated class differences
progressivism8
Progressivism
  • Many of these educational theorist had nothing good to say about how schools run and how teachers operate
  • Some of their comments include
    • Elem schools are babysitting
    • Successful students are strategist in a game to beat the system
    • Some called for eliminating schools
reconstructionism
Reconstructionism
  • This philosophy evolved out of disgruntled progressiveist
  • They felt that society was going to pot and that education was the best way to achieve social reform
  • Developed originally in 1920’s
  • The felt the progressiveist overemphasized child-centered education and ignored social needs of all classes
reconstructionism1
Reconstructionism
  • Felt the students and teachers must improve society
  • Felt teachers and classrooms should NOT be politically neutral felt that teachers and students need to take a stand on issues
  • Need to develop well reasoned students that can communicate well
reconstructionism2
Reconstructionism
  • Curriculum should be based on social issues
  • School programs would include
    • Examine society cultural heritage
    • Examine controversial issues
    • be committed to bringing about constructivist social change
    • Cultivate future oriented attitudes
    • Enlist students and teachers to enhance educational opportunities for all children.
reconstructionism3
Reconstructionism
  • A branch of reconstructivism, was a group that felt improving our social conditions was not enough. The Internationalist, felt that schools need to address issues on an international scale
  • Internationalist will speak of such things as
    • The global village, global interdependence, the shrinking world, greenhouse effect
reconstructionism4
Reconstructionism
  • Internationalist feel school need to teach students to understand various global systems and would build the curriculum around them
  • Such concepts as global:
    • political, economic, physical resources, cultural issues, and communication
    • World problems such as Western imperialism, Arab Nationalism and the growing economic influence of China and India
reconstructionism5
Reconstructionism
  • Reconceptualist view the technical approach to curriculum as too narrow and feel it is not sensitive enough to people’s feelings
  • Our society today is marked bay a failure to accommodate diversity and indifference to people's needs
  • They are socially sensitive and concerned with broad problems of society
reconstructionism6
Reconstructionism
  • Reconceptualist value communication skills , art poetry, dance , drama, literature, psychology and ethics
  • Feels that schools have oppressed that poor and we need to design a curriculum to free them
reconstructionism7
Reconstructionism
  • The final branch of reconstructivism, is the Equal Educational opportunity
  • Their goals is to assure that children born in any class have the same opportunity as children in any other class
  • Schools represent the means to achieve goals
  • Currently this does not happen because education is so closely tied to social class and family background
reconstructionism8
Reconstructionism
  • The Equal Educational opportunity followers admit that upper ward mobility is possible in the current system and would be less if it were not for public schools
reconstructionism9
Reconstructionism
  • The Equal Educational opportunity followers believe in the following five factors relevant to equal /unequal educational opportunities:
    • Offering the same curriculum to all children
    • School’s racial composition
    • equality of teacher morale and teacher expectations
    • Cognitive an economic outcomes for students with equal backgrounds and abilities
    • Cognitive and economic outcomes for students with unequal backgrounds and abilities
reconstructionism10
Reconstructionism
  • The Equal Educational opportunity followers believe in the following five factors relevant to equal /unequal educational opportunities:
    • Offering the same curriculum to all children
    • School’s racial composition
    • equality of teacher morale and teacher expectations
    • Cognitive an economic outcomes for students with equal backgrounds and abilities
    • Cognitive and economic outcomes for students with unequal backgrounds and abilities
activity1
Activity
  • Based on these four principles, what tenets do you personally hold as valuable in your curriculum Philosophy.