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Chapter 6. Phase Description. Systems Design is the third of five phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC) Now you are ready to begin the physical design of the system that will meet the specifications described in the system requirements document

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Chapter 6


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phase description
Phase Description
  • Systems Design is the third of five phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC)
  • Now you are ready to begin the physical design of the system that will meet the specifications described in the system requirements document
  • Systems design tasks include output and user interface design, data design, and system architecture
chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Discuss output design issues and various types of output
  • Design various types of reports, and suggest output controls and security
  • Explain the concept of user interface design and human-computer interaction, including the basic principles of user-centered design
  • List specific guidelines for user interface design
chapter objectives4
Chapter Objectives
  • Describe user interface techniques, including screen elements and controls
  • Explain input design concepts, techniques, and methods
  • Describe guidelines for data entry screen design
  • Use validation checks for reducing input errors
  • Design effective source documents and input controls
introduction
Introduction
  • Output and user interface design is the first task in the systems design phase of the SDLC
  • Output design focuses on user needs for screen and printed forms of output, while user interface design stresses user interaction with the computer, including input design and procedures
output design
Output Design
  • Before designing output, ask yourself several questions:
    • What is the purpose of the output?
    • Who wants the information, why it is it needed, and how will it be used?
    • What specific information will be included?
    • Will the output be printed, viewed on-screen, or both? What type of device will the output go to?
  • Your answers will affect your output design strategies
output design7
Output Design
  • Types of Output
    • Internet-based information delivery
    • E-mail
    • Audio – audio output
    • Automated facsimile systems
      • Faxback systems
    • Computer output microfilm (COM)
      • Microfilm, microfiche
    • Computer output to laser disk (COLD)
output design8
Output Design
  • Types of Output
    • Specialized Forms of Output
      • An incredibly diverse marketplace requires a variety of specialized output
      • Output from one system often becomes input into another system
      • Although digital technology has opened new horizons in business communications, printed output still is a common type of output, and specific considerations apply to it
printed and screen output
Printed and Screen Output
  • Although many organizations strive to reduce the flow of paper and printed reports, few firms have been able to eliminate printed output totally
  • Because they are portable, printed reports are convenient, and even necessary in some situations
  • Turnaround documents
printed and screen output10
Printed and Screen Output
  • Reports
    • Detail reports
      • Detail line
      • Control field
      • Control break
      • Control break report
      • Can be quite lengthy
      • Better alternative is to produce an exception report
printed and screen output11
Printed and Screen Output
  • Reports
    • Exception reports
    • Summary reports
printed and screen output12
Printed and Screen Output
  • User Involvement in Report Design
    • Printed reports are an important way of delivering information to users, so recipients should approve all report designs in advance
    • To avoid problems submit each design for approval as you complete it, rather than waiting until you finish all report designs
    • Mock-up
printed and screen output13
Printed and Screen Output
  • Report Design Principles
    • Printed reports must be attractive, professional, and easy to read
    • Report headers and footers
    • Page headers and footers
    • Column heading alignment
    • Column spacing
printed and screen output14
Printed and Screen Output
  • Report Design Principles
    • Field order
      • Fields should be displayed and grouped in a logical order
    • Grouping detail lines
      • It is meaningful to arrange detail lines in groups
      • Group header
      • Group footer
printed and screen output15
Printed and Screen Output
  • Report Design Issues
    • Too much detail is on the page, forcing users to search for the information they need
    • Good design standards produce reports that are uniform and consistent
    • When a system produces multiple reports, each report should share common design elements
    • After a report design is approved, you should document the design in a report analysis form
printed and screen output16
Printed and Screen Output
  • Designing Character-Based Reports
    • Character-based reports
    • Printer spacing chart
  • Printing Volume and Time Requirements
    • Length calculations
    • Time calculations
      • Ppm (pages per minute)
      • Line printers
printed and screen output17
Printed and Screen Output
  • Output Control and Security
    • Output must be accurate, complete, current, and secure
    • Output security
    • The IT department is responsible for output control and security measures
    • Many companies have installed diskless workstations
user interface design
User Interface Design
  • Although output design involves a separate set of physical design issues, it is an integral part of a larger concept called a user interface (UI)
  • Consists of all the hardware, software, screens, menus, functions, and features that affect two-way communications between the user and the computer
user interface design19
User Interface Design
  • Evolution of the User Interface
    • Process-control
    • As information management evolved from centralized data processing to dynamic, enterprise-wide systems, the primary focus also shifted — from the IT department to the users themselves
    • User-centered system
    • Requires an understanding of human-computer interaction and user-centered design principles
user interface design20
User Interface Design
  • Human-Computer Interaction
    • Human-computer interaction (HCI)
    • Industry leaders Microsoft and IBM both devote considerable resources to user interface research
user interface design21
User Interface Design
  • Human-Computer Interaction
    • Graphical user interface (GUI)
    • Dr. Clare-Marie Karat states that “in this new computer age, the customer is not only right, the customer has rights.”
    • The user rights cited by Dr. Karat include
      • Perspective
      • Installation
      • Compliance
      • Instruction
      • Control
user interface design22
User Interface Design
  • Human-Computer Interaction
    • The user rights cited by Dr. Karat include
      • Feedback
      • Dependencies
      • Scope
      • Assistance
      • Usability
user interface design23
User Interface Design
  • Basic Principles of User-Centered Design
    • Understand the underlying business functions
    • Maximize graphical effectiveness
    • Profile the system’s users
    • Think like a user
    • Use prototyping
      • Storyboard
      • Usability metrics
user interface design24
User Interface Design
  • Basic Principles of User-Centered Design
    • Design a comprehensive interface
    • Continue the feedback process
    • Document the interface design
user interface design25
User Interface Design
  • Guidelines for User Interface Design
    • Follow eight basic guidelines
      • Focus on basic objectives
      • Build an interface that is easy to learn and use
      • Provide features that promote efficiency
      • Make it easy for users to obtain help or correct errors
      • Minimize input data problems
user interface design26
User Interface Design
  • Guidelines for User Interface Design
    • Follow eight basic guidelines
      • Provide feedback to users
      • Create an attractive layout and design
      • Use familiar terms and images
    • Good user interface design is based on a combination of ergonomics, aesthetics, and interface technology
user interface design27
User Interface Design
  • Guidelines for User Interface Design
    • Focus on basic objectives
    • Build an interface that is easy to learn and use
    • Provide features that promote efficiency
    • Make it easy for users to obtain help or correct errors
user interface design28
User Interface Design
  • Guidelines for User Interface Design
    • Minimize input data problems
    • Provide feedback to users
    • Create an attractive layout and design
    • Use familiar terms and images
user interface design29
User Interface Design
  • User Interface Controls
    • Menu bar
    • Toolbar
    • Command button
    • Dialog box
    • Text box
    • Toggle button
user interface design30
User Interface Design
  • User Interface Controls
    • List box – scroll bar
    • Drop-down list box
    • Option button, or radio button
    • Check box
    • Calendar control
    • Switchboard
input design
Input Design
  • Input technology has changed dramatically in recent years
  • The quality of the output is only as good as the quality of the input
    • Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO)
    • Data capture
    • Data entry
input design32
Input Design
  • Input and Data Entry Methods
    • Batch input
      • Batch
    • Online input
      • Online data entry
      • Source data automation
      • RFID tags or magnetic data strips
      • POS, ATMs
input design33
Input Design
  • Input and Data Entry Methods
    • Tradeoffs
      • Unless source data automation is used, manual data entry is slower and more expensive than batch input because it is performed at the time the transaction occurs and often done when computer demand is at its highest
      • The decision to use batch or online input depends on business requirements
input design34
Input Design
  • Input Volume
    • Guidelines will help reduce input volume
      • Input necessary data only
      • Do not input data that the user can retrieve from system files or calculate from other data
      • Do not input constant data
      • Use codes
input design35
Input Design
  • Input Volume
input design36
Input Design
  • Designing Data Entry Screens
    • Most effective method of online data entry is form filling
    • Guidelines will help you design data entry screens
      • Restrict user access to screen locations where data is entered
      • Provide a descriptive caption for ever field, and show the user where to enter the data and the required or maximum field size
input design37
Input Design
  • Designing Data Entry Screens
    • Guidelines will help you design data entry screens
      • Display a sample format if a user must enter values in a field in a specific format
      • Require an ending keystroke for every field
      • Do not require users to type leading zeroes for numeric fields
      • Do not require users to type trailing zeroes for numbers that include decimals
input design38
Input Design
  • Designing Data Entry Screens
    • Guidelines will help you design data entry screens
      • Display default values so operators can press the ENTER key to accept the suggested value
      • Use a default value when a field value will be constant for successive records or throughout the data entry session
      • Display a list of acceptable values for fields, and provide meaningful error messages
input design39
Input Design
  • Designing Data Entry Screens
    • Guidelines will help you design data entry screens
      • Provide a way to leave the data entry screen at any time without entering the current record
      • Provide users with an opportunity to confirm the accuracy of input data before entering it
      • Provide a means for users to move among fields on the form
input design40
Input Design
  • Designing Data Entry Screens
    • Guidelines will help you design data entry screens
      • Design the screen form layout to match the layout of the source document
      • Allow users to add, change, delete, and view records
      • Provide a method to allow users to search for specific information
input design41
Input Design
  • Input Errors
    • Reducing the number of input errors improves data quality
    • A data validation check improves input quality by testing the data and rejecting any entry that fails to meet specified conditions
input design42
Input Design
  • Input Errors
    • At least eight types of data validation checks
      • Sequence check
      • Existence check
      • Data type check
      • Range check – limit check
      • Reasonableness check
input design43
Input Design
  • Input Errors
    • At least eight types of data validation checks
      • Validity check – referential integrity
      • Combination check
      • Batch controls – hash totals
input design44
Input Design
  • Source Documents
    • Form layout
    • Heading zone
    • Control zone
    • Instruction zone
    • Body zone
    • Totals zone
    • Authorization zone
input design45
Input Design
  • Source Documents
    • Information should flow on a form from left to right and top to bottom to match the way users read documents naturally
    • A major challenge of Web-based form design is that most people read and interact differently with on-screen information compared to paper forms
input design46
Input Design
  • Source Documents
    • Dr. Jakob Nielson believes that users scan a page, picking out individual words and sentences
    • As a result, Web designers must use scannable text to capture and hold a user’s attention
input design47
Input Design
  • Input Control
    • Every piece of information should be traceable back to the input data
    • Audit trail
    • Data security
    • Records retention policy
    • Encrypted – encryption
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • The chapter began with a discussion of output design issues and a description of various types of output
  • User-centered design principles require an analyst to understand the business functions, maximize graphical effectiveness, profile the system’s users, think like a user, use prototyping, design a comprehensive interface, continue the feedback process, and document the interface design
chapter summary49
Chapter Summary
  • An effective way to reduce input errors is to reduce input volume
  • You can also reduce errors by using well-designed data entry screens and by using data validation checks
  • Chapter 6 Complete