EU FP6 Integrated Project CARBOOCEAN                                                             ”...
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EU FP6 Integrated Project CARBOOCEAN ”Marine carbon sources and sinks assessment” 3rd Annual Meeting – Bremen Germany 4-7 December 2007.

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Objectives of carboocean ip

EU FP6 Integrated Project CARBOOCEAN ”Marine carbon sources and sinks assessment”

3rd Annual Meeting – Bremen Germany 4-7 December 2007

Core theme 5: Future scenarios for marine carbon sources and sinks


Objectives of carboocean ip

System dynamics ”Marine carbon sources and sinks assessment”

Boundary conditions

Objective 4:

Assessment of

feedbacks

Objective 2:

Long term

assessment

Objective 3:

Assessment of

Regional European

Contribution

Objectives of CARBOOCEAN IP

Guiding sustainable

development management

CO2

emmisions

Objective 5:

Prediction, future assessment

Initial conditions

Objective 1: Short-term assessment


Objectives of carboocean ip

WP11 Model performance assessment and initial fields for scenarios.

Objectives and deliverables

To determine, how well biogeochemical ocean general circulation models (BOGCMs) are able to reproduce carbon cycle observations from the real world with respect to temporal and spatial distributions

To refine criteria for model performance with respect to observations and other models

To establish a quality check for the initial conditions for future scenarios with BOGCMs

D11.3 (Version 2) Quality assessment of present day BOGCM simulations in form of written summary. This deliverable is delivered but will be extended to include further Earth system models. (Extended to month 30 as revised version).

D11.6 Extended comparison between model and observations and consistency check with other model approaches.

Breakdown into regions (data synthesis regions, comparison with inverse analyses). Addition of CFCs and natural 14C (natural) for off-line model circulations. Addition of analysis of nutrient and oxygen fields. (Month 36).

D 11.7 Atmospheric pCO2 comparison model/observations. (Month 42)

D 11.8 Analysis of the decadal variability in the ocean biogeochemical models and of the comparability model/observations for DIC, O2, nutrients, and further carbon cycle tracers. (Month 42)


Objectives of carboocean ip

The ocean carbon sink is at work indeed: scenarios.

Water column inventories for anthropogenic carbon [moles m-2], hot spots at deep water production areas:

Assmann&Bentsen

Observation derived, Sabine et al., Science, 2004 (not CARBOOCEAN)

isopycnic MICOM, Univ. Bergen

CARBOOCEAN models

D11.3

z-level:

NCAR/Univ.Bern PISCES/NEMO IPSL OM/HAMOCC MPI-MET


Evolution of model pco 2 along 20 w iceland to 50 n

Karen Assmann (Univ. Bergen) scenarios.

Evolution of model pCO2 along 20°W, Iceland to 50°N

Atmospheric (D&J) &

oceanic (D&J) pCO2

ΔpCO2(D&J)

ΔpCO2 Trend

December

-0.07 ppm/yr

January

-0.17 ppm/yr

SYN Forcing

ΔpCO2 Trend

December

0.28 ppm/yr

January

0.30 ppm/yr

CLIM Forcing

D11.6, D11.8

Karen Assmann


Objectives of carboocean ip

WP17. Coupled climate carbon cycle simulations. scenarios.

Objectives and deliverables

To provide standard set ups of coupled carbon-climate models including simulations for the present

To provide predictions of ocean carbon sources and sinks with the standard model configurations for a standard emission scenario 2000-2200

To determine important feedback processes – key regional areas in the response of oceanic carbon cycle to climate change

To provide interfaces for the new feedback processes as investigated under WP 16 and core theme 4

D 17.5 Carbon cycle data sets for basic future scenarios 2000-2100 from Hadley and Bergen Models (month 36) (partner 1and 33) [extended from previous work plan for Partners 1 and 33].

D 17.8 Further simulations & analysis on the 2100-2200 period with IPSL and Bern Models [a. 0 emission after 2100 and b. 2100 emissions after 2100] (month 36) (Partner 6 and 11)

D 17.9 Publication on intercomparison of oceanic carbon uptake on the 1860-2100 period, including other C4MIP models (month 36) (Partner 6 and all)

D 17.10 Analysis of climate change impact on export production of POC, CaCO3 and potential feedback on carbon uptake (month 42) (Partner 11, 6 and 13).


Objectives of carboocean ip

Published and in press articles : scenarios.

  • Climate-Carbon coupling 1860-2100. Results from C4MIP / CARBOOCEAN.

  • Friedlingstein P., P. Cox, R. Betts, L. Bopp, W. von Bloh, V. Brovkin, P. Cadule, S. Doney, M. Eby, I. Fung, G. Bala,  J. John, C. Jones, F. Joos, T. Kato, M. Kawamiya, W. Knorr, K. Lindsay, H. D. Matthews, T. Raddatz, P.Rayner, C. Reick, E. Roeckner, K.-G. Schnitzler, R. Schnur, K. Strassmann, A. J.Weaver, C. Yoshikawa, and N. Zeng,  Climate –carbon cycle feedback analysis, results from the C4MIP model intercomparison, Journal of Climate, 19 (14): 3337-3353, 2006.

  • 2. Evaluation of the CARBOOCEAN/Euroceans coupled models (IPSL, MPIM, Bern models). : Export and Primary production.

  • Schneider B., L. Bopp, M. Gehlen, J. Segschneider, T. L. Frölicher, F. Joos, P. Cadule, P. Friedlingstein, S. C. Doney, and M. J. Behrenfeld, Spatio-temporal variability of marine primary and export production in three global coupled climate carbon cycle models, Biogeosciences Discuss., 4, 1877-1921, 2007.

  • 3. Role of changes in THC on future ocean carbon uptake (IPSL model)

  • Swingedouw D., L. Bopp, A. Matras, and P. Braconnot, Effect of land-ice melting and associated changes in the AMOC result in little overall impact on oceanic CO2 uptake, Geophys. Res. Lett. In press, 2007.


Objectives of carboocean ip

Published and in press articles : scenarios.

4. Role of changes in calcification on future ocean carbon uptake (IPSL model)

Gehlen M., R. Gangstø, B. Schneider, L. Bopp, O. Aumont, and C. Ethe , The fate of pelagic

CaCO3 production in a high CO2 ocean: a model study, Biogeosciences, 4, 505-519, 2007

5. Role of changes in ecosystem structure on future ocean carbon uptake (IPSL model)

Bopp L., O. Aumont, P. Cadule, S. Alvain, M. Gehlen, Response of diatoms distribution to global warming and potential implications: A global model study, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L19606, doi:10.1029/2005GL023653, 2005.

6. Role of changes in dust deposition on future ocean carbon uptake (IPSL

model)

Tagliabue A., L. Bopp, and O. Aumont , Ocean biogeochemistry exhibits contrasting

responses to a large scale reduction in dust deposition, Biogeosciences Discuss., 4, 2525-

2557, 2007.


Objectives of carboocean ip

1. Climate-Carbon coupling 1860-2100. Results from C4MIP / CARBOOCEAN.

  • - 11 Climate-Carbon Coupled Models

  • (7 GCMs + 4 EMICs)

  • Same emissions scenario from 1860 to 2100

  • 2 simulations each : Uncoupled + Coupled

(Friedlingstein et al. 2006)

All models show a positive feedback bewteen the climate system and the carbon cycle.

D17.9 (slide by L. Bopp)


Objectives of carboocean ip

b CARBOOCEAN.ocean

g ocean

1. Climate-Carbon coupling 1860-2100. Results from C4MIP / CARBOOCEAN.

Feedback Analysis : g = – a (gL +gO ) / (1+ bL +bO)

a Climate sensitivity to CO2

b Ocean and Land carbon sensitivity to atmospheric CO2

g Ocean and Land carbon sensitivity to climate

Uncertainties of ocean uptake response

to both increased atm. CO2 and a changing climate

D17.9 (slide by L. Bopp)


Objectives of carboocean ip

DSST (°C)

  • Mechanisms :

  • Increasing Sea Surface Temperature

  • decreases CO2 solubility

  • - Decreased Mixing prevents

  • the penetration of C ant.

  • Decrease in Biological Production

  • reduces the amount of carbon

  • transported to depth.

DMXL (m)

D THC (Sv)

D O.M export (PgC/y)

D17.9 (slide by L. Bopp


Objectives of carboocean ip

2. Evaluation of the coupled models CARBOOCEAN.

(IPSL, MPIM, Bern models). :

Export and Primary production.

Left : Observation-based (top)

and modelled (others)

vertically integrated

primary production (PP).

Right : Hovmoeller diagrams

showing the seasonal variability

of vertically integrated PP.

(Schneider et al. 2007)

D17.10 (slide by L. Bopp)


Objectives of carboocean ip

2. Evaluation of the coupled models CARBOOCEAN.

(IPSL, MPIM, Bern models). :

Export and Primary production.

Top: Timeseries of anomalies in primary production (PP) for the global ocean (black lines) and the area of the low-latitude permanently stratified ocean that has annual mean sea surface temperatures above 25°C and dominates the global signal. On the left data from satellite observations are shown, on the right results from the IPSL model.

Middle: Timeseries of anomalies in the low-latitude ocean for PP overlaid by stratification and SST anomalies, showing the inverse relationship between climate (stratification, SST) and productivity in both observation-based estimates (left) and the IPSL model (right).

Bottom: maps of cross-correlations of local PP anomalies versus the stratification anomalies averaged over the whole area of the low-latitude ocean from observation-based estimates (left) and the IPSL model (right).

(Schneider et al. 2007)

D17.10 (slide by L. Bopp)


Objectives of carboocean ip

3. Role of changes in THC on future ocean carbon uptake (IPSL model)

3 simulations with the same Coupled GCM (1 Control and 2 scenarios)

CTL

THC (Sv)

GW1

GW2

1xCO2 2xCO2 4xCO2

CTL : Control – No Climate Change

GW1 : 1xCO2 > 4xCO2 – No additional ice melting in the North

GW2 : 1xCO2 > 4xCO2 – Additional ice melting in the North

Swingedouw et al. in press.

D17.8 (slide by L. Bopp)


Objectives of carboocean ip

3. Role of changes in THC on future ocean carbon uptake (IPSL model)

3 simulations with the same Coupled GCM (1 Control and 2 scenarios)

CTL

THC (Sv)

GW1

GW2

1xCO2 2xCO2 4xCO2

Cumulative

Carbon

Uptake (GtC)

CTL > GW1 = GW2

THC-related SST and SSS effects counter-balance the dynamical effect

Swingedouw et al. in press.

D17.8 (slide by L. Bopp)


Objectives of carboocean ip

4. Role of changes in calcification on future ocean carbon uptake (IPSL model)

The effect of rising pCO2 on CaCO3 production and dissolution was quantified by means of model simulations forced with atmospheric CO2 increasing at a rate of 1% per year from 286 ppm to 1144 ppm over a 140 year time-period.

The simulation predicts a decrease of CaCO3 production by 27%.

The combined change in production and dissolution of CaCO3 yields an excess uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere by the ocean of 5.9 GtC over the period of 140 years.

Gehlen et al. 2007


Objectives of carboocean ip

5. Role of changes in ecosystem structure on future ocean carbon uptake

(IPSL model)

Simulated changes in the relative abundance of diatoms

(4xCO2 – 1xCO2)

At 4xCO2, diatoms relative abundance is reduced by more than 10% at the global scale.

This simulated change in the ecosystem structure impacts oceanic carbon uptake by reducing the efficiency of the biological pump, thus contributing to the positive feedback between climate change and the ocean carbon cycle.

However, our model simulations do not identify this biological mechanism as a first-order process in the response of ocean carbon uptake to climate change.

(Bopp et al. 2005)

D17.8 (slide by L. Bopp)


Objectives of carboocean ip

6. Role of changes in dust deposition on carbon uptake

future ocean carbon uptake (IPSL model)

Absolute change in (A) NPP (gC m-2 yr-1),

(B) air-sea CO2 exchange (gC m- yr-1),

between 2000 and 2100, due to 60% decrease in dust deposition (Mahowald et al. 2006).

We find that the ocean biogeochemical cycle of carbon is relatively insensitive to a 60% reduction in Fe input from dust.

Overall, there is relatively little impact of reduced aeolian Fe input (<4%) on

cumulative CO2 fluxes over 240 years.

The lower sensitivity of our model to changes in dust input is primarily due to the more detailed representation of the continental shelf

Fe, which was absent in previous models.

(Tagliabue et al. 2007)

D17.8 (slide by L. Bopp)


Objectives of carboocean ip

A first A2 run – currently being compiled with components that we already have:

from Jerry Tjiputra

D17.5


Lpj driven by bcm
LPJ driven by BCM that we already have:

D17.5 Kristof Sturm


Vegetation dynamics
Vegetation dynamics that we already have:

Global

[60ºN-90ºN]

[30ºN-60ºN]

LPJ-BCM

LPJ-ECHAM

D17.5 Kristof Sturm


Net ecosystem exchange
Net Ecosystem Exchange that we already have:

Global

[60ºN-90ºN]

NEE

C4MIP (Friedlingstein et al., 2006)

D17.5 Kristof Sturm


Objectives of carboocean ip

Column inventory of C that we already have:Ant in 1994 (moles m-2)

Simulated

(climatol. NCEP forcing)

Observed

(Sabine et al. 2004)

D17.5 Karen Assmann & Mats Bentsen


Objectives of carboocean ip

WP18. Feasibility study on purposeful carbon storage. that we already have:

Objectives and deliverables

To determine the kinetics and phase-transfer reactions between liquid CO2, hydrate, and seawater from laboratory experiments under high pressures.

To simulate the near-range dispersion of injected CO2 using these new kinetic constraints and improved meso-scale models for CO2 injection in the deep ocean and at the sea floor

To prepare the simulation of the large-scale propagation of injected CO2 and the global ocean’s retention efficiency (using these improved near-range constraints and a global high-resolution model)

To provide preliminary quantification of spatial scales for stress on marine biota due to deliberate CO2 injection.

D18.3 Parameters for near-range geochemical kinetics and phase transfer for deep ocean storage (month 36)

D18.4 Improved quantification of liquid CO2 near-range behaviour at the seafloor (month 30)

D18.5 Global scale high resolution modelling of CO2 release (month 36)


Objectives of carboocean ip

CO2 droplet rise rates as measured in pressure chamber that we already have:

Bigalke (IfM GEOMAR) and G. Rehder (IOW)

D18.3/18.4


Objectives of carboocean ip

CO2 droplet rise rates for that we already have:hydrated droplets and ”clean” droplets

Clean droplets rise quicker as currently assumed according to p,T-stability conditions for CO2 hydrate

Bigalke (IfM GEOMAR) and G. Rehder (IOW)

D18.3/18.4


Objectives of carboocean ip

Mixed layer depth CFCl3 inventories that we already have:

Lachkar et al., 2007, Ocean Science

D18.5