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Key Assumptions of The Cognitive Perspective. Individuals who suffer from mental disorders have distorted and irrational thinking – which may cause maladaptive behaviour. It is the way you think about the problem rather than the problem itself which causes the mental disorder.

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key assumptions of the cognitive perspective
Key Assumptions of The Cognitive Perspective
  • Individuals who suffer from mental disorders have distorted and irrational thinking – which may cause maladaptive behaviour.
  • It is the way you think about the problem rather than the problem itself which causes the mental disorder.
  • Individuals can overcome mental

disorders by learning to use more

appropriate cognitions.

beck s model of depression 1979 the cognitive triad
Beck’s Model of Depression (1979) ‘The Cognitive Triad’

Negative Automatic Thoughts

  • Negative Triad (3 negative Schemata)
    • Negative view of the self
    • Negative view of the world
    • Negative view of the future
cognitive therapy
Cognitive Therapy
  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
  • Aim – to challenge irrational and dysfunctional thought processes
what is cbt
What is CBT?
  • It is a way of talking about:
    • how you think about yourself, the world and other people
    • how what you do affects your thoughts and feelings.
  • CBT can help people to change how they think ('Cognitive') and what they do ('Behaviour'). These changes can help them to feel better.
  • It focuses on the 'here and now' problems and difficulties. Instead of focusing on the causes of distress or symptoms in the past, it looks for ways to improve the state of mind now.
when does cbt help
When does CBT help?
  • CBT has been shown to help with many different types of problems.
    • Anxiety, depression, panic, phobias, stress, bulimia, OCD, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, bipolar disorder and psychosis.
how does it work
How does it work?
  • CBT can help to break the vicious circle of maladaptive thinking, feelings and behaviour.
  • When the parts of the sequence are clearly outlined and understood, they can be changed.
  • CBT aims to get the person to a point where they can ‘DIY', and work out their own ways of tackling their problems.
what does cbt involve
What does CBT involve?

The Sessions

Meet with a therapist for between 5 and 20, weekly, or fortnightly sessions.

Each session will last between 30 and 60 minutes.

how effective is cbt
How effective is CBT?
  • CBT is effective in reducing symptoms of depression and in preventing relapse (Kuykenet al, 2007)
  • It is the most effective psychological treatment for moderate and severe depression.
  • It is as effective as antidepressants for many types of depression (Fava et al, 1994).
cbt and drug treatment
CBT and Drug Treatment
  • Keller et al (2000)
  • Recovery rates (from depression)
    • 55% drugs alone
    • 52% CBT alone
    • 85% when used together.
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Strengths

Weaknesses

Clients can become dependant on their therapist, or non-cooperative

CBT is not effective for people with rigid attitudes or resistance to change,

or for people who have high stress levels in response to genuinely difficult life circumstances (depressive realism)

CBT is not a quick fix. A therapist is like a personal trainer that advises and encourages - but cannot 'do' it for the client.

  • Client is actively involved in their recovery
  • CBT is not physically invasive
  • Client learns to help themselves, and can use the skills in new situations.
  • CBT works (e.g. Kuyken, Fava)
  • Particularly when combined with drug treatment (Keller)
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"We are what we think. All that we are arises with our thought. With our thoughts, we make our world."

The Buddha