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Artistic Expression in the 19 th Century

Artistic Expression in the 19 th Century

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Artistic Expression in the 19 th Century

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  1. Artistic Expression in the 19th Century By: Tim Gephart, Stef Turk, Ryan Thomas, Erin Mannion Theme: Throughout the 19th century in Europe, emerging art movements would reject previous artistic ideas and works by going outside the bounds of society, mimicking the social and political challenges of the period.

  2. Romanticism (1800-1850) • Theme: Sense of Liberty and rejecting older artwork due to the government • Preconditions: • French Revolution • Rebellion against Neo-Classicism • Caused from a revival of interest in Medieval tales and romances • Sense of rebellion amongst artists • Inspired by romantic works by Dante and Shakespeare • Emotion and feeling over reason • Centered in Germany and England, then moved on to France

  3. Romanticism • Characteristics: • Values: emotion and feeling • Inspired by: Medieval tales and Baroque art • Tone: dramatic and emotional • Subjects: nature, heroes/legends, and violence • Color: deep, rich shades • Technique: quick brushstrokes, strong and light shade contrast (ex yellow and blue) • Composition: use of diagonal •

  4. Artists: Theodore Gericault (1791-1824) • French painter • Launched Romanticism with painting “Raft of Medusa”. It was of a group of abandoned passengers from a sunken ship. • He focused on the boundaries outside of society

  5. Artists: Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) • French painter • Leader of movement after Gericault • Painted “Massacre and Chios”, which was a Turkish massacre on the island of Chios. • Painted “Liberty Leading the People”. Glorified the July Revolution in France

  6. Romantic Paintings “Liberty Leading the People” by Eugene Delacroix

  7. Romantic Paintings “Massacre at Chios” by: Eugene Delacroix

  8. Romantic Paintings “The Raft of Medusa” by: Theodore Gericault

  9. Romantic Paintings “Haywain” by: John Constable

  10. Realism (1830-1870) • Preconditions: • Overwhelming use of Romanticism and Neo-Classicism in art • With academic art, Romanticism was rejected and a strong support for contemporary was needed • During the beginning of the Industrial Revolution • History/Characteristics: • Literature: Explored subjects untouched by writers (alcoholism, prostitution, etc). Portrayed dark side of life to draw attention to people on a bad subject (dark)

  11. Realism • History/Characteristics: Art • Only try to put precise imitations of what the artist saw, without altering the subject in any way • Painted only what they could see or touch; religion not popular amongst artists, along with mythology • Rejected the use of imagination • Most painters tried to show the lives and customs of people in the lower and middle classes • Tried to bring problems to attention for all of society • Photography was introduced, as it showed the world as it was

  12. Authors: Charles Dickens (1812-1870) • English author • “A Tale of Two Cities”: Bring about the bad things that were occurring during the French Revolution. • The most popular English novelist of the Victorian era, and he remains popular, responsible for some of English literature's most iconic characters.

  13. Artists: Gustave Courbet (1819-1831) • French painter • “The Father of Realism” • First person to try to create alternate style to Romanticism • Began by trying to paint landscapes and villages as accurately as possible

  14. Realist Paintings “The Third of May” by Francisco de Goya

  15. Realist Paintings “The Third Class Carriage” by Honore Daumier

  16. Realist Paintings “Forest of Fontainebleau” by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

  17. Realist Paintings “The Cliffs at Etretat After a Storm” by Gustave Courbet

  18. Symbolism • Preconditions: • Romanticism, reaction to Impressionism, stable economy, “good” outlook on life • Influenced by religion • Influenced by seriousness of the Industrial Age • Artists were mostly French and Italian • Reflected what the soul felt • Very abstract • Mystical • Bright colors (yellow and blue) • Attention to detail

  19. Artists: Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) • Spanish artist • Very abstract, unrealistic, dreamlike • Famous “Blue Period” (one of his styles) occurred because of the suicide of his friend; mostly blue/green, with depressing subjects • Rose Period consisted of clowns and acrobats as subjects; orange/yellow/pink were mostly used

  20. Artists: Gustave Moreau (1826-1898) • French artist • Mostly religious paintings • Watercolors and drawings • 8,000 paintings completed • Art teacher; influenced Matisse, who was his student • Oedipus and the Sphinx was his most famous painting

  21. Symbolist Paintings “The Cyclops” by Odilon Redon

  22. Symbolist Paintings “Angels in Chains” by Odilon Redon

  23. Symbolist Paintings “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon” by Pablo Picasso “La Vie” by Pablo Picasso

  24. Symbolist Paintings “The Dessert: Harmony in Red (The Red Room)” by Henri Matisse

  25. Impressionism (1867-1886) • Preconditions: • The French Academy of Fine Arts was conservative; the artists were liberal. • Challenged the status quo; lived in a freer society governed by Napoleon III • Academy rejected Manet’s “Le dejeuner de l’herbe”, which infuriated artists • Napoleon III and the Salon of the Refused • “Impressionists” coined by Louis Leroy • Fueled by rebellion

  26. Impressionism • Characteristics: • Bright colors • Obvious brushstrokes • Attention to light • Unfocused • Captured what the artist thought of the subject in relation to what it really was • Subjects: social life, leisure, nature/landscapes

  27. To describe an Impressionist painter… • “The Impressionist sits on a river bank, depending on the weather, his angle of vision, the time of day, and whether its windy or still, the water takes on every possible tone, and he paints, unhesitatingly, the water and all its tones. When the sky is clear, and the sun shining, he paints sparkling silvery blue water; when it is windy, he paints the reflections of the lapping waves; when the sun is setting and darts its rays over the water, the Impressionist, to capture the effect, lays down yellows and reds on his canvas.” • ~ Theodore Duret

  28. Artists: Claude Monet (1840-1926) • French painter • Founded Impressionist movement with Pierre-Auguste Renoir • Fascinated with nature, especially the garden and lily ponds on his property • Attention to color and how it affects mood • Famous painting: “Water-Lilies”

  29. Artists: Edouard Manet (1832-1883) • French painter • Influenced by artists like Monet • Traveled around Europe, painting daily life and scenery • “Le dejeuner sur l’herbe” was rejected from Academy, sparking artists’ rebellion • Used dark and light colors in contrast, moderate strokes

  30. Impressionist Paintings “Water-Lilies” by Claude Monet

  31. Impressionist Paintings “The Beach at Trouville” by Claude Monet

  32. Impressionist Paintings “The Bar at the Folies-Bergere” by Edouard Manet

  33. Impressionist Paintings “Le Dejeuner sur l’herbe” by Edouard Manet

  34. Post-Impressionism (late 1880’s-1905) • Preconditions: • Young artists wanted to break free of Impressionists’ Naturalism, but still maintained certain characteristics • Wanted to show deeper meanings and emotions in art • Fueled by rebellion against massive Impressionist influence • Want for artistic Independence • Artists didn’t consider it a legitimate movement • “Post-Impressionists” coined by Robert Fry • Referred to French art after Manet • Hard for society to adapt

  35. Post-Impressionism • Characteristics: • Light is as strong and important as Impressionism, but focused on certain parts of the painting • Colors intense and purified; not as pastel • Visible brushstrokes • Multiple angles to subject • Style over fidelity • Solidity and form

  36. Artists: Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) • Dutch painter • Influenced by Monet, Picasso, Gauguin • Painted peasants, then Paris and flowers • Experienced frequent fits of madness; cut off part of his ear during one of his rages • Spent time at an asylum, where he painted “Starry Night” and 150 other paintings • Used bright colors and defined lines/curves

  37. Artists: Georges Seurat (1859-1891) • French painter • Formed the Societe des Artistes in 1884 after his painting was rejected from a Paris salon • Developed skills in pointillism over time • Used tiny dots in some paintings • Favored pastels (almost impressionist) and light

  38. Post-Impressionist Paintings “Starry Night” by Vincent van Gogh

  39. Post-Impressionist Paintings “Sunday Afternoon on the Island of Grande Jatte” by Georges Seurat

  40. Post-Impressionist Paintings “Sunflowers” by Vincent Van Gogh

  41. Post-Impressionist Paintings “The Circus” by Georges Seurat

  42. Victorian Era (Queen Victoria 1837-1901) • England was having a “golden age” due to the prosperity of the British Empire • Owned 1/3 of the world; “The sun never set on the British Empire.”

  43. Victorian Era • Preconditions: Reform Bill of 1832 • Bill gave more power political and economic power to the Middle Class • Decreased power of lower classes • Art consisted of Gothic revival and architecture • Combination of many art forms • Due to the Golden Age • included Classicism, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Impressionism, and Post-Impressionism

  44. Artists: Dante Rossetti • English poet, artist, and translator • Founder of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood • Focused on sensuality and revival of medieval styles • Influenced by John Keats, an English Romantic poet • Poetry influenced by deep thought and feeling

  45. Artists: William Holman Hunt (1827-1910) • English painter • Another founder of the Brotherhood • Art inspired by John Ruskin and Thomas Carlyle • Believed the world should be read as a system of visual signs • Characterized by detail, vivid color, symbolism

  46. Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood  • Formed in 1848 by Dante Rossetti and William Holman Hunt • Inspired by the works of Raphael and the Italian Renaissance • Rejected Industrialization in England and the Royal Academy of Art (English) • Art was directed towards nature; colorful and very detailed • Sought to transform Realism

  47. Literature during the Victorian Era • Aestheticism- moral and social values • Famous authors include: Charles Dickens, Emily and Charlotte Bronte, Charles Baudelaire, etc. • Overall negative; focused on society, the “dark side” of man, and lives of different social classes • A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens • Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte

  48. Authors: Charles Dickens (1812-1870) • An English writer • A Christmas Carol and A Tale of Two Cities focused on the many aspects of man • wanted social reform in Great Britain • Modern style of writing in his works • Other popular works: Great Expectations

  49. Authors: Emily (1818- 1848) and Charlotte Bronte (1816-1855) • English novelists • Emily’s only novel was Wuthering Heights • Charlotte’s works: Jane Eyre and The Professor, etc • Dark style • Used settings to convey themes and personalities

  50. Impact of the “-isms” • Romanticism: Age of Reason structure rattled; inspired people to change the future of art, literature, and music. • Realism: Showed society the problems within it; addressed social issues like poverty and raised awareness. • Symbolism: Had profound impact on Modernism; encouraged emerging artists to take more risks. • Impressionism: Fueled by rebellion; encouraged liberalist ideas amongst society; Post-Impressionism. • Post-Impressionism: Informed society of more social issues; influenced modern art overall. • Victorian Era: Literature addressed struggles of social classes; Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood = liberal.