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資訊組織研究. 指導教授:張迺貞 教授 報告者:江政哲 組員:曾嬿容 ( 組長 ) 、劉慈心、鄭美珍. SKOS 介紹. 大綱. SKOS is … SKOS ’ s Goal Concepts SKOS 正在發展的 RDF 語法標準種類 SKOS Core ( SKOS 核心詞彙規格 ) SKOS Mapping SKOS Extensions SKOS Example. SKOS is ….

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slide1

資訊組織研究

指導教授:張迺貞 教授

報告者:江政哲

組員:曾嬿容 (組長)、劉慈心、鄭美珍

SKOS介紹

slide2
大綱
  • SKOS is …
  • SKOS’s Goal
  • Concepts
  • SKOS正在發展的 RDF 語法標準種類

SKOS Core ( SKOS 核心詞彙規格)

SKOS Mapping

SKOS Extensions

  • SKOS Example
skos is
SKOS is …
  • SKOS (Simple Knowledge Organisation System) 簡單知識組織系統。
  • SKOS提供一個標準規範,以 RDF 為基底,去描繪出知識組織系統 ( KOS )。所描繪出來的陳述,皆是 Machine-Readable,所以不僅在不同的電腦應用上可以交流,亦可發佈於 World Wide Web 。
  • SKOS可視為 RDF 的一種實際應用。
  • Library Science 的應用在 Semantic Web 。

SKOS 提供一個受規範的語言,去描繪那些受控制、結構化的字彙。 ( SKOS provides a formal language for representing controlled, structured vocabularies. )

From: SKOS: New Dimensions in Interoperability (Ed Summers, Library of

Congress) and Jon Phipps (Cornell Univ.)

http://nkos.slis.kent.edu/2008workshop/EdSummers.pdf

skos is4
SKOS is …
  • SKOS的說明文件,由W3C Working Drafts負責,這表示SKOS還是一個正在成長的計畫。
  • 可以經由SKOS的官方網站中,得知有關於SKOS之最新、最快的發展情況。
  • 由W3C’s Semantic Web Best Practices-WG負責其發展。
  • 經由 public-swd-wg@w3.org 的 mail list 的成員,來完成SKOS的發展。其過程具有公眾化 ( Public )、可公開討論的 ( Open community )、一致性 ( Consensus-Driven )的特性。
  • From: SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System - Home Page

http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/intro

skos s goal
SKOS’s Goal
  • 以RDF Schema 設計方式,來展現與分享控制的詞彙,為了達到簡單

(Simple)、靈活 (Flexible)、可擴充(Extensible)、電腦可理解 (Machine-understandable) 的陳述。

  • SKOS 常被使用於:

索引典 ( Thesauri )

分類法 ( Taxonomies )

主題標目表 ( Subject Headings )

分類綱藥 ( Classification Schemes )

其它類型有結構的控制詞彙 ( Structured Controlled Vocabulary )

From: SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System - Home Page

http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/intro

the skos data model
The SKOS data model
  • 從多數的例子來看,SKOS data model 的核心,即使用各種的特徵,去描述大多數知識組織系統 ( KOS )。
  • 概念結構( Concept Scheme ) 包含一套概念上來的資源 ( conceptual resources )。

所以 Thesauri、 Taxonomies、 Subject Headings 、 Classification Schemes 、 Vocabulary 都是概念結構( Concept Scheme ) 。

  • 概念上來的資源 ( Conceptual resources ) 或者概念結構 ( Concepts ) 都可以使用通用資源標誌符 ( URIs : Uniform Resource Identifier ) 來識別。
  • The model 是多語系的與可擴張的。

From: A. Miles, B. Matthews, M. Wilson and D. Brickley. SKOS Core / Simple

Knowledge Organisation for the Web (2005)

examples key
Examples Key

Morten: c1

A Resource ( 資源 )

rdf: type A Property ( 屬性、特色 )

A Class ( 分類、類別 )

rdf: type A Statement

( 陳述 )

SKOS: Concept

Skos: Concept

Morten: c1

concepts
Concepts
  • SKOS最根本的元素就是概念 ( Concept ) 。概念是思考 ( Thought ) 的一種單位,如點子 ( ideas ) 、含義 ( Meaning ) 、類目 ( categories ) 、在 KOS 下的項目 ( Event )。
  • 典型的寫法:skos: Concept
  • 概念 ( Concept ) 可以有各式各樣的種類,並有串接上不限任何數量的記錄。所以被預期到會提供可擴張的架構 ( extensible framework ) 於更多的特定型態的記錄。

skos: note

skos: changeNote

skos: definition

skos: editoriaINote

skos: example

skos: historyNote

skos: scopeNote

concepts9
Concepts
  • 概念 ( Concept ) 可以被連接一個或者更多的概念結構 ( Concept Scheme )。

skos: inScheme ( 一個概念的特性 )

skos: hasTopConcept ( 一個概念結購的特性 )

  • 在相同的概念結構 ( Concept Scheme ) 下,概念 ( Concept ) 可以被連接其它的概念 ( Concept ) 。

有階級制度的連接 ( Hierarchical links ):

skos: broader and skos: narrower

skos: broaderTransitive and skos: narrowerTransitive

組合的連接 ( Associative links )

skos: related

concepts10
Concepts
  • 概念 ( Concept ) 在收集 ( collections ) 中,可以被歸類 ( grouped ),這些歸類的類別可以被貼標籤 ( labeled ) 或被命令 ( ordered )。

skos: Collection

skos: OrderedCollection

skos: member

skos: memberList

  • 概念 ( Concept ) 在不同的概念結構 ( Concept Scheme ) 下,可以被標示 ( Mapped ) 到其它的概念 ( Concept ) 。

有階級制度的標示 ( Hierarchical mapping ):

skos: broadMatch and skos: narrowMatch

組合的標示 ( Associative mapping ) :

skos: relatedMatch and skos: closeMatch and skos: exactMatch

skos schema overview
SKOS Schema Overview

Class

From: SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System RDF Schema

skos schema overview12
SKOS Schema Overview

Properties

From: SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System RDF Schema

skos core
SKOS Core
  • SKOS 核心詞彙規格 :提供以核心集的模式來表達概念體系的基本結構與內容。是一組RDF屬性(properties)與RDFS類別(classes),它可以用來表達一個概念體系的內容與結構成為一個RDF語法與圖解。 SKOS Core可運用於結合其他的語意網來產生對資訊更豐富的描述。以RDF詞彙描述語言(RDFS)透過它的次層級與次屬性構造,提供簡單的RDF詞彙基本的延伸技巧。Web Ontology Language(OWL)與SKOS Core結合的運用,產生更強有力的資源表達基礎。
  • From: http://zh.wikipedia.org/
skos core14
SKOS Core
  • SKOS Core 定義出足以表徵出標準索引典一般特徵的類別(classes)與屬性(properties)。SKOS Core 的設計是出於對詞彙的概念中心的觀點,其主要的物件並非語詞(terms),而是藉由詞彙所被呈現的抽象概念。每個SKOS concept都定義為一個RDF resource;也都能附加RDF屬性,包括:
  • 一個或多個選用辭(preferred index term),
  • 另用詞(alternative terms)或同義詞(synonyms)
  • 定義或註記
  • SKOS concepts 可以就上位/下位(broader-narrower)關係組織成樹狀結構,亦或就連結關係組織成非樹狀結構。SKOS concepts 可以集結為概念範疇/綱要(concept schemes),以作為一控制詞彙的完整或部份的概念結構。
  • From: XXC@Note
skos mapping
SKOS Mapping
  • SKOS Mapping 企圖提供不同概念範疇間的對映。目前由 SWAD-Europe 計畫發展中。
  • From: XXC@Note
skos extensions
SKOS Extensions
  • SKOS Extensions 企圖提供概念與其他「非上下位」語義關係 的宣告方式。
  • From: XXC@Note
skos s example
SKOS’s Example
  • SKOS in Controlled Vocab
  • Taxonomy
  • Thesaurus
  • Classification Scheme
  • RDF / XML 與 SKOS, RDF and RDFS, Owl and DC 的比較
  • http://lcsh.info/sh95000541#concept
  • Royal Library of Sweden

From: SKOS Core: Simple Knowledge Organisation for the Web

DC-2005 Madrid / CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

Dan Brickley / W3C

skos in controlled vocab
SKOS in Controlled Vocab
  • Example controlled vocabulary:

W3C Recommendation

A W3C Recommendation is a specification or set of guidelines that, after extensive consensus-building, has received the endorsement of W3C Members and the Director. ...

Working Group Note

A Working Group Note is published by a chartered Working Group to indicate that work has ended on a particular topic. …

taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • Example taxonomy:

General

Politics

Travelling

thesaurus
Thesaurus
  • Example thesaurus:

Economic cooperation

UF Economic co-operation

SNIncludes cooperative measures in banking, trade, industry etc., between and among countries.

BT Economic policy

NT Economic integration

RT Interdependence

classification scheme
Classification Scheme

Example classification scheme:

90. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS

91. Solid Earth physics

91.10.-v Geodesy and gravity

91.10.Pp Gravimetric measurements and instruments

slide26
RDF/ XML :

<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"

xmlns:ex="http://www.example.com/">

<rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.example.com/aResource">

<ex:aProperty rdf:resource="http://www.example.com/anotherResource"/> <ex:anotherProperty xml:lang="en">An RDF Literal</ex:anotherProperty> </rdf:Description>

</rdf:RDF>

SKOS, RDF and RDFS, Owl and DC

@prefix skos: http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos#

@prefix rdf: http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#

@prefix rdfs: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#

@prefix owl: http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#

@prefix dc: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/

@prefix foaf: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/

@prefix ex: http://www.example.com/

@prefix ex1: http://www.example1.com/

@prefix ex2: http://www.example2.com/

share data and tools
Share Data and Tools
  • SKOS Data Zone: This wiki page has links to some published SKOS data sets.

http://esw.w3.org/topic/SkosDev/DataZone

  • SKOS Tool Shed: This wiki page has links to software tools & applications available for creating/editing/applying SKOS.

http://esw.w3.org/topic/SkosDev/ToolShed

reference
Reference

中文

  • XXC@Note:http://www.xxc.idv.tw/dokuwiki/doku.php/skos
  • 維基百科:http://zh.wikipedia.org/
  • LibTec Review 雨僧圖技論評:http://www.dlresearch.cn/rainzen/?p=10

英文

  • Mikhalenko, P. (2005, June). Introducing SKOS. Available at: O’Reilly XML. Com. Retrieved November 26, 2006
  • Joseph T. Tennis and Stuart A. Sutton (2008, January). Extending the simple knowledge organization system for concept management in vocabulary development applications. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Volume: 59 Issue: 1 Pages: 25-37
reference33
Reference
  • SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System - Home Page :

http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/

  • SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System Primer :http://www.w3.org/TR/skos-primer/
  • SKOS Simple Knowledge Organization System RDF Schema

http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/WD-skos-reference-20080829/skos.html