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  1. Developments in the environmental movement D Oehlke 2012

  2. Overview of the movement

  3. 1960’s and 70’s NGO’s become popular • List some examples…. • World Wildlife Fund, WWF • Greenpeace • Friends of the Earth

  4. 1972 first Earth Summit The Stockholm Conference • UN conference on the Human Environment • Human Environment Fund Established • UNEP formed (United Nations Environmental Programme) • Earth Summits planned for every 10 years • Many governments established departments of the environment after this event

  5. The Stockholm Declaration • “Man has a fundamental right to freedom, equality and adequate conditions of life, and an environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well being.” • “Each person has the responsibility to protect and improve the environment for the present and future generations.”

  6. CITES formed by IUCN 1975 • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species • International Union for Conservation of Nature

  7. The Gaia Hypothesis 1979 • James Lovelock published the Gaia: A new look at the Earth. • The Gaia Hypothesis encourages a systems approach to the environment. • Nature is seen as self regulating

  8. Nairobi Earth Summit 1982 • Not very famous • Ineffective

  9. Green Parties forming • Political parties with the environment as one of the main parts of their political agenda • These parties started to form around the world in the 1980’s

  10. The Brundtland Report 1987 • UN World Commision on the Environment and Development published Our common Future • Promoted sustainable development and international collaboration • Environmental Issues on the political agenda • Named after Prime Minister Brundtland from Norway

  11. Sustainable development • Improving the standards of living of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generations

  12. Montreal Protocol 1987 • UNEP organized • 30 nations agree to reduce CFC use

  13. IPCC formed by UNEP 1988 • International Panel on Climate Change • Concerned with climate change

  14. Rio Earth Summit 1992 • Our Common Future published • 172 nations attended • Transformations in attitudes necessary towards environmental attitudes • Agenda 21 published – (21 refers to the 21st century) • Linked environment, the economy and sustainable development

  15. Agenda 21 • A blueprint for sustainable development world wide • Relationships established between human rights, population, social development, human human settlements and the need for environmentally sustainable development.

  16. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INTEGRATES ECONOMIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS

  17. Kyoto protocol • Agreement to reduce carbon dioxide emissions

  18. Green awareness 1990’s • Environmentally friendly products • Recycling • Ecotourism

  19. UN Millennium Goals • Goal 7 Ensure Environmental Sustainability Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources. Target 10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Target 11. Have achieved by 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at lea

  20. Johannesburg Earth summit on Sustainable development 2002 • Plans made to improve water and sanitations energy supply issues health agricultural abuse biodiversity reduction Focused on the issue of environmental inequality

  21. Kyoto Protocol continues • 174 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol in 2005 • 15% reduction in green house gas emissions by 2008

  22. More on Climate change.. • An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore • Nobel Peace Prize to Al Gore and IPCC for work on climate change • 187 countries meet and agree to discuss climate change in Bali

  23. UNEP Convention on Biodiversity 2010 • The year of biodiversity became the decade of biodiversity

  24. Resources • Environmental Systems and Societies Course Companion • Environmental Systems and Societies for the IB Diploma