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Muslim’s Contribution to Science. Presented by M.A.Lateef Atear. Topics. Defining Science and Hikmah Science before Islam Contribution of Quran to science Contribution to modern science by Muslim scientists Down fall of Islamic era of science Action plan to revert the present situation.

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Muslim’s Contribution to Science

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    1. Muslim’s Contribution to Science Presented byM.A.LateefAtear

    2. Topics • Defining Science and Hikmah • Science before Islam • Contribution of Quran to science • Contribution to modern science by Muslim scientists • Down fall of Islamic era of science • Action plan to revert the present situation

    3. Science or Hikma • Study of nature • Islam stresses to explore nature (Tahqeeq and Tasqeer) • Expect us to know the force behind nature • Once this is realized the concept of Creation (Maqlooq) and Creator (Qaleq) become obvious • Knowledge of nature brings you closure to Allah

    4. Science • After the birth of Mohammad (SAS) science took a different course • Revelation of Al-Quran-ul-Hakeem changed the thinking process of mankind • Islam brought science from imaginary philosophical concept to modern experimental and practical stage, so call Modern Science

    5. Science • Al-Quran initiated a different thinking process in Muslim Scholars (Hukma or Muslim Scientists) • Reaching precision and accuracy was their measurement • They developed the method of investigation (Scientific Method)

    6. CAUTION I would like to caution the audience that science is constantly evolving from uncertainty to certainty, from imperfection to perfection, from trial and error to precision and accuracy. Therefore a knowledge, which is constantly evolving, and at any given time has not attained its perfection can not judge the absolute truth. In other words, Allah’s words are absolute Hikma and can not be judged by scientific measures that are imperfect and are constantly evolving in search of absolute truth. Vice versa, if science is under the guidance of Hikma, then it is certain that truth will be revealed to us.

    7. Pre-Islamic Science Greek Philosophy • Hippocates ( 460-377 BC) Socrates (469-399 BC), Plato (427-347 BC), Aristotle (384-322 BC) • Hypothetical, speculative and imaginary • No evidence of experimentation

    8. Islamic era of Science • Birth of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) (570 AD – 632 AD) • Begins with revelation of Quran (610 AD)

    9. Islam and Modern Scientific Methods • The Challenge of Quran Soon we will show them our signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls until it manifests truth on them. (Sura Fussilat 41:53)

    10. Importance of observation in Quran Say : “Behold all that is In the heavens and on earth” (Sura Yunus 10:101)

    11. Do they not look At the Camels, How they are made (Sura Gashiya 88:17)

    12. Say: “Travel through the earth And see how God did Originate creation; so will God produce a later creation: For God has Power over all Things (Sura Ankabut 29:20)

    13. And He has subjected to you as from Him, All that is in heavens And on earth: Behold, In that are signs Indeed For those who reflect (Sura Jathiya 45:13)

    14. Quran gives many Scientific facts Do not the Unbelievers see That the heavens And the earth Were joined together (as one Unit Of Creation), (Sura Anbiyaa 21:30)

    15. Expansion of the Universe And the heaven, we have built it with power. Verily, we are expanding it. (Sura Al Zariyat 51:47)

    16. “From 8th century to 12th century, Arabic was the scientific language”.- British Research 4:1

    17. “Muslim scholars introduced precise observation, controlled experiment and careful records”.-Will Durant

    18. Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber) 721 – 815 CEKhorasan, Iran Father of Chemistry

    19. Major Books Written by him • Kitab Al-Kimya : Book of Balances • Kitab Al- Sab’een: Book of the Kingdom • Book of Eastern Mercury • 100 Monumental Treatises, 22 on Chemistry and Alchemy

    20. His Achievements & Contributions • Invented alembic Systematized the process of distillation • Break through includes :- Nitric, Hydrochloric, Citric, and Tartaric Acids Preparation • Paved the way for classification of substances into metals, non-metals and volatile substances and the law of constant proportions • He perfected scientific techniques such as Crystallization, Distillation, Calcinations, Sublimation, Evaporation and development of Several Instruments for the Same

    21. Pioneer of Applied Chemistry :- Preparation of Various Metals, development of steel, dyeing of cloth and tanning of leather, varnishing of water-proof cloth, use of manganese dioxide in glass-making, prevention of rusting, lettering in gold, identification of paints, greases, etc

    22. Hadith ‘Who so ever treats people without knowledge of Medicine, become liable’. Al-Bukhari and Muslim

    23. ‘He who studies medicine without books sails an uncharted sea, but he who studies medicine without patients does not go the sea at all’ Dr. William Osler

    24. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) 980-1037 CEof Bukhara, Uzbekistan

    25. Field of Contributions • Hafiz • Physician • Islamic Philosopher • Astronomer • Chemist • Logician • Mathematician • Poet • Psychologist • Sheikh • Soldier • Statesman • Theologian

    26. Books Written by him • Ibn Sina wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. • In particular, 150 of his surviving treatises concentrate on Philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on Medicine • His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a Vast philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicinewhich was a standard Medical text at Many Islamic and European universities up Until the early 19thcentury. • The Canon of Medicine was used as a text-book in the universities of Montpellier and Louvain as late as1650.

    27. Medicine • The Canon of Medicine was the first book dealing with Experimental Medicine, evidence-based medicine, randomized controlled trials and efficacy test sand it laid out the following rules and principles for testing the effectiveness of new drugs and medications, which still form the basis of clinical pharmacology and modern clinical trails • "The drug must be free from any extraneous accidental quality.“ • "It must be used on a simple, not a composite, disease.“ • "The drug must be tested with two contrary types of diseases, because sometimes a drug cures one disease by Its essential qualities and another by its accidental ones.“

    28. The quality of the drug must correspond to the strength of the disease. For example, there are some drugs whose heat is less than the coldness of certain diseases, so that they would have no effect on them • The time of action must be observed, so that essence and accident are not confused • The effect of the drug must be seen to occur constantly or in many cases, for if this did not happen, it was an accidental effect • The experimentation must be done with the human body, for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on man

    29. Legacy “The single most famous book in the history of medicine, in east or west. Encyclopedia Britannica “The canon has remained a medical bible for a longer time than any other work". Dr. William Osler “The author of most famous book ever written” Dr.William Osler “Better to be mistaken following Avicenna, than to be correct following others” Michelangelo

    30. Ibn Sina Featured on Tajikistan’s Currency

    31. Abbas Ibn Firnas ( Armen Firman) 810-887 CE Izn-Rand Onda, al-Andalus (today's Ronda, Spain) First Man to Fly

    32. His Achievements & Contributions • First to make glass from stones (quartz) • Designed a water clock called Al-Maqata • "Ibn Firnas was the first man in history to make a scientific attempt at flying." —Philip Khuri Hitti, in his book “History of the Arabs” • He also devised means of manufacturing glass from sand to produce quartz glass, and he developed a chain of rings that could be used to display the motions of the planets and stars • Invented an artificial weather simulation room, in which spectators saw stars and clouds, and were astonished by artificial thunder and lightning. These were due to mechanisms hidden in the basement

    33. In 852, under the new Caliph 'Abd al-Rahman II, Ibn Firnas flew off from the minaret of the Mezquita mosque in Córdoba, using a huge wing-like cloak to break his fall, he sustain minor injuries. This was the first example of an early parachute • In 875, at the age of 65 years, Ibn Firnas made the first attempt at controlled flight when he invented a hang glider with artifical wings, and launched himself from the Mount of the Bride (Jabal al-'arus) in the Rusafa Area, near Córdoba. The flight was largely successful, and was widely observed by a crowd that he had invited. However, the landing was not perfect

    34. El Zahrawi (Albucasis) 936 – 1013 CE Córdoba, Spain Father of Surgery Surgical Instruments by Al Zahrawi

    35. Books Written by him • At-Tasrif - a medical Encyclopedia spanning 30 volumes which included sections on Surgery, Medicine, Orthopaedics, Ophthalmology, Pharmacology, Nutrition etc • Liber servitoris de preeparatione medicinarum simplicium, describes chemical preparations, tablet making, filtering of extracts and related pharmaceutical techniques • Discussed cauterisation, bloodletting, midwifery and obstetrics and the treatment of wounds; exposure and division of the temporal artery to relieve certain types of headaches; diversion of urine into the rectum; reduction mammoplasty for excessively large breasts and the extraction of cataracts; injuries to bones and joints; even mentioning fractures of the nasal bones and of the vertebrae

    36. His Achievements & Contributions • Outlined use of caustics in surgery, fully described tonsillectomy, tracheotomy and craniotomy- operations performed on a dead foetus; used a hook to extract a polyp in the nose; used a bulb syringe he invented for giving enemas to children and used a metallic bladder syringe and speculum to extract bladder stones • The first to describe the so-called “Walcher position” in obstetrics; the first to depict dental arches, tongue depressors and lead catheters & the first to describe clearly the hereditary circumstances surrounding haemophilia; described ligaturing of blood vessels long before Ambroise Pare • The French surgeon Guy de Chauliac in his ‘Great Surgery’, completed in about 1363, quoted Al-Tasrif over 200 times. El Zahrawi was described by Pietro Argallata (1423 A.D.) as “without doubt the Chief of all Surgeons”

    37. MOHAMMAD BIN MUSA AL-KHAWARIZMI Greatest Mathematician that Ever Lived / Astronomer / Geographer

    38. Books Written by him • Kitab al-Jam’a wal- Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi on Arithmatic • On Algebra, Al-Maqala fi Hisab-al Jabr wa-al- Muqabilah –translated into Latin in the 12th century, and it was this translation, which introduced this new science to the West “completely unknown till then.” • Astronomical Tables were also translated into European languages and, later, into Chinese • Kitab Surat-al-Ard on Geography, together with its maps • Two books on the Astrolabe • Kitab al-Tarikh • On sun-dials - Kitab al-Rukhmat

    39. His Achievements & Contributions • Founder of several branches and basic concepts of Mathematics • Influenced mathematical thought to a greater extent than any other medieval writer - Phillip Hitti • Work on Algebra was outstanding, as he not only initiated the subject in a systematic form but he also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations, which established him as the founder of Algebra • The very name Algebra has been derived from his famous book Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah

    40. His Achievements & Contributions • His arithmetic synthesised Greek and Hindu knowledge and contained his own contribution of fundamental importance to Mathematics and Science • Developed decimal system so that the overall system of numerals, ‘Algorithm’ or ‘Algorizm’ is named after him

    41. Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) 1091 -1161 CE Seville, Spain The First Parasitologist

    42. Books Written by him • Kitab Al-Taisir fi Al-Mudawat Wa Al-Tadbir (Book of Simplification concerning Therapeutics and Diet) gives in detail pathological conditions, followed by therapy • Kitab Al-Iqtisad fi Islah Al-Anfus Wa Al-Ajsad (Book of the Middle Course concerning the Reformation of Souls and the Bodies) gives a summary of diseases, therapeutics and hygiene written specially for the benefit of the layman - A valuable discourse on Psychology • Kitab Al-Aghthiya (Book on Foodstuffs) describes different types of food and drugs and their effects on health

    43. His Achievements & Contributions • Described correctly, for the first time, Scabies, the Itch mite and may thus be regarded as the first Parasitologist • Prescribed Tracheotomy and direct feeding through the gullet and rectum in the cases where normal feeding was not possible • Gave clinical descriptions of mediastinal tumorous, intestinal phthisis, inflammation of the middle ear, pericarditis, etc • He gave the first accurate descriptions on neurological disorders, including meningitis, intracranial thrombophlebitis, and mediastinal tumours, and made contributions to modern neuropharmacology

    44. Ibn Al - Nafis 1213 - 1288 CEDamascus (Syriya) Great Physician anatomia

    45. Books Written by him • The most voluminous of his books is Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb, which was designed to be an encyclopedia comprising 300 volumes. The manuscript is available at Damascus • Mujaz Al-Qanun Kitab Al-Mukhtar fi Al-Aghdhiya (the effects of diet on health) • Elaborated the function of the coronary arteries as feeding the cardiac muscle • Donated his house, library and clinic to the Mansuriya Hospital in Cairo, where he also served

    46. His Achievements & Contributions • His major contribution of great significance was his discovery of the blood’s circulatory system, which was rediscovered by modern science after a lapse of three centuries • He was the first to correctly describe the constitution of the lungs and gave a description of the bronchi and the interaction between air and blood in the human blood vessels • Elaborated the function of the coronary arteries feeding the cardiac muscle. Wrote detailed commentaries on early works, critically evaluating them and adding his own original contributions

    47. Nasir Al-Din Al Tusi 1201- 1274 CE Kadhimain near Baghdad, Iraq Mathematics, Astronomy, Philosophy and Religion Tusi couple from Vat. Arabic ms 319 A Treatise on Astrolabe by al-Tusi, Isfahan

    48. Books Written by him • Al-Zij-Ilkhani Tajrid-Al-’Aqaid (Islamic Scholastic Philosophy • Akhlaqi-Nasri book on ethics entitled Al-Risalah Al-Asturlabiyah – A Treatise on astrolabe • Wrote 64 treatises; one-fourth concern Mathematics, another fourth Astronomy, another fourth Philosophy and Religion, and the remainder other subjects • Invented an instrument ‘torqued’ that contained two planes

    49. His Achievements & Contributions • In Trigonometry, his major contribution in Spherical Trigonometry which was compiled as a new subject in its own right for the first time • Produced new astronomical tables called Al-Zij-Ilkhani. Which became the most popular tables among astronomers and remained so till the 15th century • Pointed out several serious shortcomings in Ptolemy’s astronomy and foreshadowed latter’s dissatisfaction with the system that culminated in the Copernican reforms • Invented an instrument ‘torqued’ that contained two planes