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CS4254 Computer Network Architecture and Programming. Dr. Ayman A. Abdel-Hamid Computer Science Department Virginia Tech Multicasting. Outline. Multicasting (Chapter 21) Multipoint Communications IP Multicast IPv4 Multicast addresses Sending and Receiving Messages Multicasting on a LAN

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slide1

CS4254

Computer Network Architecture and Programming

Dr. Ayman A. Abdel-Hamid

Computer Science Department

Virginia Tech

Multicasting

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

outline
Outline
  • Multicasting (Chapter 21)
    • Multipoint Communications
    • IP Multicast
    • IPv4 Multicast addresses
    • Sending and Receiving Messages
    • Multicasting on a LAN
    • Multicasting on a WAN
    • Multicast Issues

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

multipoint communications
Multipoint Communications
  • Multipoint communications support communications between more than two hosts
    • One-to-many
    • Many-to-many
  • Unlike broadcast, allows a proper subset of hosts to participate
  • Example standards
    • IP Multicast (RFC 1112, standard)

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

logical multipoint communications
Logical Multipoint Communications
  • Two basic logical organizations
    • Rooted: hierarchy (perhaps just two levels) that structures communications
    • Non-rooted: peer-to-peer (no distinguished nodes)
  • Different structure could apply to control and data “planes”
    • Control plane determines how multipoint session is created
    • Data plane determines how data is transferred between hosts in the multipoint session

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

logical multipoint communications1
Logical Multipoint Communications
  • Control Plane
  • The control plane manages creation of a multipoint session
    • Rooted control plane
      • One member of the session is the root, c_root
      • Other members are the leafs, c_leafs
      • Normally c_root establishes a session
        • Root connects to one or more c_leafs
        • c_leafs join c_root after session established
    • Non-rooted control plane
      • All members are the same (c_leafs)
      • Each leaf adds itself to the session

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

logical multipoint communications2
Logical Multipoint Communications
  • Data Plane
  • The data plane is concerned with data transfer
    • Rooted data plane
      • Special root member, d_root
      • Other members are leafs, d_leafs
      • Data transferred between d_leafs and d_roots
        • d_leaf to d_root
        • d_root to d_leaf
      • There is no direct communication between d_leafs
    • Non-rooted data plane
      • No special members, all are d_leafs
      • Every d_leafs communicate with all d_leafs

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

forms of multipoint communications
Forms of Multipoint Communications
  • Server-based -- rooted multipoint communications with server as d_root
    • Passive or inactive
      • Relay
      • Reflector
    • Active
      • Bridge or multipoint control unit (MCU)
  • Strictly peer-to-peer multipoint – Non-rooted
    • Multicast

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

multipoint servers
Multipoint Servers
  • Passive Multipoint Server
  • a relay or reflector service
  • Provides no processing of the data
  • Minimum requirement is for transport-level semantics, so can operate at the transport or application level
  • Active Multipoint Server
  • Does application-level processing
    • transcoding
  • uses application-level semantics

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

multicast communication
Multicast Communication
  • Multicast abstraction is peer-to-peer
    • Application-level multicast
    • Network-level multicast
      • Requires router support (multicast-enabled routers)
      • Multicast provided at network protocol level  IP multicast

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

multicast communication1
Multicast Communication
  • Transport mechanism and network layer must support multicast
  • Internet multicast limited to UDP (not TCP)
    • Unreliable: No acknowledgements or other error recovery schemes (perhaps at application level)
    • Connectionless: No connection setup (although there is routing information provided to multicast-enabled routers)
    • Datagram: Message-based multicast

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ip multicast
IP Multicast
  • IP supports multicasting
    • Uses only UDP, not TCP
    • Special IP addresses (Class D) identify multicast groups
    • Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) to provide group routing information
    • Multicast-enabled routers selectively forward multicast datagrams
    • IP TTL field limits extent of multicast
  • Requires underlying network and adapter to support broadcast or, preferably, multicast
    • Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) supports multicast

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ip multicast group address
IP Multicast: Group Address
  • How to identify the receivers of a multicast datagram?
  • How to address a datagram sent to these receivers?
    • Each multicast datagram to carry the IP addresses of all recipients?  Not scalable for large number of recipients
    • Use address indirection
      • A single identifier used for a group of receivers

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ip multicast igmp protocol
IP Multicast: IGMP Protocol
  • RFC 3376 (IGMP v3): operates between a host and its directly attached router
  • host informs its attached router that an application running on the host wants to join or leave a specific multicast group
  • another protocol is required to coordinate multicast routers throughout the Internet  network layer multicast routing algorithms
  • Network layer multicast  IGMP and  multicast routing protocols
  • IGMP enables routers to populate multicast routing tables
  • Carried within an IP datagram

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ip multicast igmp protocol1
IP Multicast: IGMP Protocol
  • IGMP v2 Message types
  • membership query: general
    • Sent by routers  router query multicast groups joined by attached hosts
  • membership query: specific
    • Sent by routers  query if specific multicast group joined by attached hosts
  • membership report
    • Sent by host  report host wants to join or is joined to given multicast group
  • leave group (optional)
    • Sent by host  report leaving given multicast group 

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ip multicast igmp protocol2
IP Multicast: IGMP Protocol
  • Joining a group
    • Host sends group report when the first process joins a given group
    • Application requests join, service provider (end-host) sends report
  • Maintaining table at the router
    • Multicast router periodically queries for group information
    • Host (service provider) replies with an IGMP report for each group
    • Host does not notify router when the last process leaves a group  this is discovered through the lack of a report for a query

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ip multicast multicast routing
IP Multicast: Multicast Routing
  • Multicast routers do not maintain a list of individual members of each host group
  • Multicast routers do associate zero or more host group addresses with each interface

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ip multicast multicast routing1
IP Multicast: Multicast Routing
  • Multicast router maintains table of multicast groups that are active on its networks
  • Datagrams forwarded only to those networks with group members

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ip multicast multicast routing2
IP Multicast: Multicast Routing
  • How multicast routers route traffic amongst themselves to ensure delivery of group traffic?
    • Find a tree of links that connects all of the routers that have attached hosts belonging to the multicast group
      • Group-shared trees
      • Source-based trees

Shared Tree

Source Trees

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

mbone internet multicast backbone
MBONE: Internet Multicast Backbone
  • The MBone is a virtual network on top of the Internet (section B.2)
    • Routers that support IP multicast
    • IP tunnels between such routers and/or subnets

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

unicast versus broadcast versus multicast
Unicast versus Broadcast versus Multicast
  • A unicast address identifies a single IP interface
  • A broadcast address identifies all IP interfaces on the subnet
  • A multicast address identifies a set of IP interfaces
  • A multicast datagram is received only by those interfaces interested in the datagram (applications wishing to participate in the multicast group)

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ipv4 multicast addresses 1 3
IPv4 Multicast Addresses 1/3
  • Class D addresses in the range 224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255
  • Low order 28 bits of class D Naddress (see appendix A) form the multicast group ID (32-bit address is the group address)
  • Mapping of IPv4 multicast address to Ethernet address
    • High-order 24 bits of Ethernet address are always 01:00:5E
    • Next bit always 0
    • Low-order 23 bits are copied from low-order 23 bits of multicast group address
    • High-order 5 bits of group address are ignored in the mapping
    • Mapping not one-to-one

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ipv4 multicast addresses 2 3
IPv4 Multicast Addresses 2/3
  • 224.0.1.88 mapped into an Ethernet address?
  • Remember an Ethernet address is 48 bits
  • The address 224 is E0 in hex, 0 is 00 in hex, 1 is 01 in hex, and 88 is 58 in hex. However, only the low-order 23 bits are used
  • Therefore, the IP address of 224.0.1.88 converted to a MAC address is 01-00-5E-00-01-58.

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

ipv4 multicast addresses 3 3
IPv4 Multicast Addresses 3/3
  • Some special IPv4 multicast addresses
  • 224.0.0.0 reserved
  • 224.0.0.1 all-host group
  • 224.0.0.2 all-routers group
  • 224.0.0.1 through 224.0.0.255 reserved for routing-protocols
  • Datagrams destined to any of theses addresses are never forwarded by a multicast router

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

sending receiving multicast messages
Sending & Receiving Multicast Messages
  • Receiving Multicast Messages
    • Create a UDP socket
    • Bind it to a UDP port, e.g., 1234
      • All processes must bind to the same port in order to receive the multicast messages
    • Join a multicast group address
    • Use recv or recvfrom to read the messages
  • Sending Multicast Messages
    • You may use the same socket (you used for receiving) for sending multicast messages or you can use  any other UDP socket (it does not have to join any multicast group)

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

multicast on a lan 1 3
Multicast on a LAN 1/3
  • Receiving application creates a UDP socket, binds to port 123 and joins multicast group 224.0.1.1
    • IPv4 layers saves the information internally and tells appropriate datalink to receive Ethernet frames destined to 01:00:5E:00:01:01
  • Sending applications creates a UDP socket and sends a datagram to 224.0.1.1, port 123
  • Ethernet frame contains destination Ethernet address, destination IP address, and destination port
  • A host on the LAN that did not express interest in receiving multicast from that group will ignore such datagram
    • Destination Ethernet address does not match the interface address
    • Destination Ethernet address is not the ethernet broadcast address
    • The interface has not been told to receive any group addresses

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

multicast on a lan 2 3
Multicast on a LAN 2/3
  • Ethernet frame received by datalink of receiver based on imperfect filtering (When interface told to receive frames destined to one specific Ethernet multicast address, it can receive frames destined to other Ethernet multicast addresses)
    • Ethernet interface cards apply a hash function to group address, calculating a value between 0 and 511. This information turns on a bit in a 512-bit array
    • Small size bit-array implies receiving unwanted frames
    • Some network cards provide perfect filtering
    • Some network cards have no multicast filtering at all (multicast promiscuous mode)
  • Packet passed to IP layer (IP layer compares group address against all multicast addresses that applications on this host have joined  perfect filtering)
  • Packet passed to UDP layer, which passes it to socket bound to port 123

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

multicast on a lan 3 3
Multicast on a LAN 3/3
  • Some Other scenarios
  • A host running an application that has joined 225.0.1.1  Ethernet address 01:00:5E:00:01:01. Packet will be discarded by perfect filtering in IP layer
  • A host running an application that has joined some multicast group which the Ethernet address produces the same hash value as 01:00:5E:00:01:01. Packet will be discarded by datalink layer or by IP layer
  • A packet destined to the same group, but a different port. Accepted by IP layer, but discarded by UDP layer (no socket has bound the different port)

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

multicast on a wan

H1

S

MR1

MR5

MR2

MR3

MR4

H4

H5

H2

H3

Multicast on a WAN
  • A program started on five hosts belonging to different LANs
  • Multicast routers communicate with neighbor routers using a multicast routing protocol (MRP)
  • When a process on a host joins a multicast group, that host sends an IGMP message to any attached multicast routers, which in turn exchange this information using MRP with neighbor routers
  • When a sender sends a multicast message, mutlicast routing information is used to direct the message

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

some multicast issues
Some Multicast Issues
  • Time To Live
    • Set TTL for outgoing multicast datagrams (default is 1  local subnet)
  • Loopback mode
    • Enable or disable local loopback of multicast datagrams
    • By default loopback is enabled
    • A copy of each multicast datagram sent by a process on the host will also be looped back and processed as a received datagram by that host
  • Port Reuse
    • Allow the same multicast application to have several instances running on the same host
    • In Java, Port reuse is enabled by default

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

socket options
Socket Options
  • Various attributes that are used to determine the behavior of sockets (see chapter 7)
  • #include <sys/socket.h>
  • int getsockopt (int sockfd, int level, int optname, void * optval, socklen_t *optlen);
  • int setsockopt (int sockfd, int level, int optname, const void * optval, socklen_t optlen);
  • Both return 0 if OK, -1 on error
  • sockfd: an open socket descriptor
  • level: code in the system that interprets the option (general socket code, or protocol-specific code) (SOL_SOCKET, IPPROTO_IP, IPPROTO_IPv6, IPPROTO_TCP are examples)
  • optname: see page 193

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

socket options1
Socket Options
  • Some socket options examples (see table on page 193 and 194)
  • For multicast socket options see section 21.6 on page 559
    • Socket Level
      • SO_SNDBUF, SO_RCVBUF, SO_KEEPALIVE, SO_BROADCAST, SO_REUSEADDR, SO_RESUEPORT
    • IP Level
      • IP_TTL, IPMULTICAST_IF, IPMUTLICAST_TTL, IP_MULTICAST_LOOP, IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP, IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP
    • TCP Level
      • TCP_KEEPALIVE, TCP_MAXSEG, TCP_NODELAY

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006

sending and receiving
Sending and Receiving
  • Section 21.10 page 575
  • A program to send and receive multicast datagrams
    • Send datagram to a specific group every five seconds (datagram contains sender’s hostname and process ID)
    • An infinite loop that joins the multicast group to which the sending part is sending and prints every received datagram
  • Create a UDP socket then set multicast socket options for address reuse, joining the group, and setting loopback
  • See mcast/main.c, mcast/send.c, and mcast/recv.c

© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 2006