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The Empire in Transition. Chapter 4. Loosening Ties. Despite being under royal charters, as was the case for most colonies, they were left with a great deal of freedom for the King

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Loosening ties
Loosening Ties

  • Despite being under royal charters, as was the case for most colonies, they were left with a great deal of freedom for the King

    • The King and Parliament did not quite know how they wanted to be involved with the colonies—too interfere, or not interfere? That was the King’s question

  • King George the I and II were not too familiar with British customs and thus the Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, was able to run the country without a King contradicting his desires

    • He chose to loosen the Navigation Act’s restrictions in the hopes that it would stimulate trade

  • There were no agencies in London that helped to organize the colonies nor did they have specific laws governing the colonies as a whole

Loosening ties1
Loosening Ties

  • The Parliament and bureaucratic agencies knew nothing of America except what they had heard from representatives who came to speak for American rights

  • The colonial governments were even more useless

    • Positions such as governor were given to friends of the King—even then they would stay in England and pay somebody to go “rule” the colony

    • The end result was people who were corrupt took bribes from colonists to not enforce the laws/taxes

  • The colonial legislations began to feel like mini-Parliaments in which they controlled budgets and despite veto power of governors and the Privy Council, they were able to side step and act as independent governments

Loosening ties2
Loosening Ties

  • Despite disobeying royal orders, the colonies firmly held that they were royal English subjects

    • They did not feel loyalty to each other though—viewed other colonies as foreigners

  • The colonies were stuck with one another, like it or not

    • The proximity they had to one other forced them to have to trade with each other and eventually be connected by roads

  • The Albany Plan, proposed by Ben Franklin, was meant to help unify the colonies against the French and Indians

    • It would have a president general and a grand council that would regulate Native relations

    • None approved—Franklin said that while everyone wanted union, “their weak noodles are perfectly distracted.”

The struggle for the continent
The Struggle for the Continent

  • The French and Indian War (a.k.a. The Seven Years’ War) disrupted the “uneasy balance of power” between the French, British, and Iroquois in America

    • This war would completely change the relationship between the colonists and the British and ultimately change the course of history

  • The French, under Louis XIV, sought to expand their wealth and influence, thus pushing them to explore new areas of America

    • Robert Sur de La Salle sailed all the way down the Mississippi to the delta

    • All of the interior part of the continent was claimed by France

    • This lead to an increase in French forts, communities, and trading posts like Sault Ste. Marie, Quebec (the jewel of the French colony), and New Orleans—soon to be the most significant part of the French colony

The struggle for the continent1
The Struggle for the Continent

  • New Orleans had “Creoles” which were white, French immigrants

    • They owned large plantations and thus slaves

  • As both England and France realized that they were laying claim to common areas they knew the group that would win would be the one who could gain the allegiance of the Natives

    • While the English had the better economy and could offer better goods, they did not have tolerance

    • The Natives mostly allied with France because France had spent years developing a better relationship with them

  • The Iroquois, being the most powerful Native confederacy, played the two European powers against each other

    • Kept war from become much worse by keeping the Iroquois out actually

The struggle for the continent2
The Struggle for the Continent

  • Between King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War, and King George’s War the French had lost a substantial amount of territory

  • The Iroquois decided to grant trade concessions to the British (meaning they could trade with natives in the interior of the continent)

    • The French feared the British were trying to take over French lands (they were right…)

    • In response, the French built fortresses in the Ohio Valley

    • The British took this as a threat and built their own fotresses

    • The Iroquois would ally with the British although they played virtually no role in the war

The struggle for the continent3
The Struggle for the Continent

  • Britain sent troops to go after the French at Fort Duquesne

    • Col. G. Washington built Fort Necessity to lead attacks from

    • The French retaliated, killed many at the fort and forced Washington to surrender

  • The next offensive measure came when British General Edward Braddock attempted to retake Fort Necessity

    • Washington warned Braddock that it would be difficult

    • Braddock responded with arrogance—he quickly died in battle

    • Washington had to rally the British troops who were in total disarray

  • By the end of the first phase of the war all Natives but Iroquois were allied with the French (the Iroquois were useless as allies)

    • The British who lived on the Allegheny boarded was in constant danger

The struggle for the continent4
The Struggle for the Continent

  • In the second phase of the war the European alliances were realigned and William Pitt took charge of Britain’s war efforts

  • British commanders began forcing colonists into the military (impressment) and seizing supplies and equipment (without compensation)

  • The third phase came with William Pitt stepping in and working gently with colonists

    • Basically asked them to join the military, help with the war and in return the King would not make them pay for the war (in fact, he would pay them for their help)

    • The tide of war shifted in favor of the British as the colonists helped win the war

The struggle for the continent5
The Struggle for the Continent

  • The beginning of the end for France came with a successful raid by the British into Quebec

    • The British did forcefully relocate some of the Acadians (to New Orleans—today they are called Cajuns) and also rewarded people who scalped Natives

  • Peace finally came with King George III who wanted the war over

    • The Peace of Paris 1763 ended French ownership on the continent (Canada and interior America went to the British while New Orleans went to Spain)

The struggle for the continent6
The Struggle for the Continent

  • The relationship between the colonists and British became strained

    • The British were resentful of colonists who continued to sell goods to the French during the War

    • They believed that the colonists didn’t pay their fair share since the war was “fought for them”

      • Britain went deep into debt for the war

  • The colonists were also unhappy with Britain

    • They considered the military rude and horrible representatives of “gentlemen”

    • They were angry over the rules laid on them during the war

    • The worst was yet to come however

The struggle for the continent7
The Struggle for the Continent

  • Parliament decided it was necessary to restructure the colonies and regain control over them

    • The colonists however had felt what it was like to organize together

    • The colonial military considered themselves the “people’s army”

    • Relations with the Iroquois immediately fell apart as the British viewed them as working with the French since they were so passive during the war

The new imperialism
The New Imperialism

  • Organizing the colonies would prove difficult

    • They refused to be tax during the war (to include raising taxes internally)

    • They refused to obey the Proclamation of 1763 which established a boundary with Natives to prevent further conflict

  • King George III’s defects were not helpful either

    • During these years he was immature and insecure

    • In later years, he became deranged

The new imperialism1
The New Imperialism

  • The Proclamation of 1763 had several purposes

    • Prevent colonists from provoking issues with Natives

    • Slow westward growth so the King could better control western lands

    • Prevent people from abandoning the still developing eastern colonies

    • Create alliances with Natives

  • It failed to accomplish these goals

    • White settlers and speculators continued to push into the Ohio Valley and beyond

The new imperialism2
The New Imperialism

  • Prime Minister Grenville (took William Pitt’s place) was not a fan favorite

    • He forced colonists to abide by the Mutiny Act of 1765—required them to maintain the army (give food, etc. to them)

  • He pushed through the Sugar Act

    • Eliminated (supposedly) illegal sugar trade and developed Vice-Admiralty courts for violators

  • Passed the Currency Act

    • Banned use of paper money

  • Most notoriously passed the Stamp Act

    • Taxed most printed things

The new imperialism3
The New Imperialism

  • While the colonists resented the new rules, they found them hard to resist

  • Another issue for colonists was that those in the “backcountry” were left more vulnerable to Native attacks

    • The Paxton Boys marched on Philadelphia and demanded that COLONIAL taxes be lowered and that money be given to them to help protect their region

    • The only reason this was not a full revolt is because Philadelphia gave them what they wanted

  • The Regulator Movement was a “civil war” of sorts against the tax collectors and sheriff by citizens who were against the taxes

    • While the revolt was put down, it also resulted in 6 hanged Regulators

The new imperialism4
The New Imperialism

  • In the end, the British economy was in a horrible depression

    • The colonists felt that their economy was also being ruined

  • They began to organize movements to fight imperial policies and new government regulations

The imperial crisis in british north america
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • Many colonists were proud to be British after the war was over however, noticed some important differences

    • The British officers were profane, lewd, and violent

    • Colonial officers knew they needed to maintain enthusiasm amongst the troops, punishment was “sub par” for British standards

      • The two groups often taunted each other with name calling of “Yankees” and “Lobsters”

    • The colonists developed an “American identity” by fighting alongside other colonists and seeing new regions

    • Trade after the war increased by 25% between colonies leading to better post roads for transporting mail

The imperial crisis in british north america1
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • Newspaper was one of the most important intercolonial events

    • Newspapers were not supposed to criticize public officials

    • NYC editor John Peter Zenger was jailed for publishing “seditious libel”

      • His case set the precedent for freedom of press

      • By 1760 20 opinionated papers circulated the colonies (20% of male colonists were regular readers)

    • The news coverage jumped drastically during the war and leading up to the Revolution

    • This is when the term “American” began being used

    • From this the Continental Congress would eventually rise

The imperial crisis in british north america2
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • Writings by such people as John Trenchard, Thomas Gordon, Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, and John Locke appeared in the colonial papers

    • These writers pushed the idea that monarchs were destroying liberty and instituting tyranny

      • They believed that a government should open the ballots to more people, have legislative representation based on population and responsible to their constituents

      • The only positive of the current system was that it forced people to exercise public virtue

      • These ideas are collectively known as “republicanism”

The imperial crisis in british north america3
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • Republicanism is founded in the idea that a nation should provide the greatest possible liberty to individuals

    • Locke argued that authority should be limited instead of absolute (limited government)

    • He also said people should choose their own government and withdraw support from that government if it doesn’t fulfill its obligations

    • It only works if the people are virtuous and make health and stability of the political community their first priority

      • This rivaled monarchial concept of a strong state led by an elite family kept a vicious and unruly people in line

The imperial crisis in british north america4
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • To avoid Indian uprisings and to deal with Spanish and French populations now in British territory the Crown left 10K regulars in N.A.

    • The cost added up quickly to the already large debt Britain had

    • To alleviate debt Britain raised taxes at home (citizens protested) so George Grenville, Chancellor of Exchequer, decided to get the money through the colonists

    • In 1764 he pushed the Sugar Act through Parliament

The imperial crisis in british north america5
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • The Sugar Act put a duty on imported sugar, revitalized customs service, introduced stricter registration for ships and added more officers

    • Also, customs cases were heard in vice-admiralty courts, meaning no presumption of innocence and no trial by jury

  • Colonists (merchants) were already hurt by an economic depression following the war so the new tax hurt their business (and smuggling)

    • Many began to protest, the loudest of which was Boston who decided on a boycott of certain British goods

    • Other colonies soon followed

The imperial crisis in british north america6
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • James Otis Jr. of MA said

    • A man’s “right to his life, his liberty, his property written on the heart, and revealed to him by his maker, inherent, inalienable, and indefeasible by any laws, pacts, contracts, covenants, or stipulations which man could devise.”

    • He continued there could be “no taxation without representation.”

  • Grenville countered saying it was only fair that colonists help pay for the empire

    • Unconcerned with the colonists’ concerns he pushed through the Stamp Act in 1765

The imperial crisis in british north america7
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • The Stamp Act taxed paper for newspaper, legal documents, licenses, insurance policies, ship’s papers, as well as dice and playing cards

    • The new tax came during the continuing economic downturn and taxed more than just merchants

    • The larger problem came with the taxation without representation

      • Britain argued “virtual representation” in that Parliament represented all citizens not just those they were elected from

      • Daniel Dulany, lawyer from MD, wrote Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in which he refuted Britain’s claim

      • He argued for “actual representation”

The imperial crisis in british north america8
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • These arguments were addressed in the Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions

    • Patrick Henry a lawyer known for being radical had said 2 years prior that King George III had degenerated “into a tyrant, and forfeits all rights to his subjects’ obedience”

    • Speaking on behalf of the resolutions he warned the King not to be like Caesar and Charles I for the outcome is not pleasant

      • This caused colleagues to shout “Treason!” but Henry said he only spoke in “the interest of his country’s dying liberty”

    • The Burgesses rejected most of his resolutions, but printed all of them for the other colonies to see

    • Soon similar measures were passed by other colonies in support of “no taxation without representation”

The imperial crisis in british north america9
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • Samuel Adams, a member of the Loyall Nine Social Club, had befriended James Otis and began to preach the same ideals

    • “If our trade may be taxed, why nor our lands?”

    • He would be important in organizing protests

  • The working class in Boston came together on August 14, 1765 and strung up effigies of British officers including Andrew Oliver, stamp distributor

    • They vandalized his office and home and when the sheriff tried to break it up, they pelted him with rocks

    • Oliver resigned his position

The imperial crisis in british north america10
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • 12 days later the colonists gather outside of Lt. Gov. Thomas Hutchinson’s home

    • They looted and destroyed his home

    • From Halifax to Savannah, British tax officials were forced to resign

The imperial crisis in british north america11
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • Many colonial cities sought control of the mobs by creating moderate protest groups like the Sons of Liberty

    • They circulated petitions and pamphlets and violence was to be a last resort

    • There were limited political goals

  • In Oct. 1765 nine colonies (no NH, GA, VA, or NC) came together for the Stamp Act Congress

    • They said that Parliament could not tax without representation but did have ability to regulate trade

    • By the end of 1765 most stamp distributors had fled their positions making it impossible for Britain to enforce the Stamp Act

The imperial crisis in british north america12
The Imperial Crisis in British North America

  • England’s merchants exported 40% of their goods to America

    • William Pitt, a merchant at this point, said the crown should not tax the colonists

    • Grenville asked “Tell me when the Americans were emancipated.” Pitt responded “I desire to know when they were made slaves.”

    • Franklin warned that if Grenville put troops in to force the Stamp Act, a rebellion would occur

    • It wasn’t until Lord Rockingham took Grenville’s place that the Stamp Act was repealed

      • The colonists, so happy about the repeal, hardly took notice of the Declaratory Act

      • This Act gave Parliament full authority over its colonies “in all cases whatsoever”

Save your money and save your country
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • When Britain once again began placing taxes on the colonists, the colonists reinstated the policy of nonimportation

    • The Boston Gazette stated “save your money and save your country” a slogan adopted by the movement

  • After several failed governments in the colonies, King George III asked William Pitt to come back as Prime Minister

    • Pitt died shortly after, therefore unable to use his credibility in America to stabilize the colonies

    • To take his place--Charles Townshend, Chancellor of Exchequer

Save your money and save your country1
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • Townshend had an economic crisis to deal with at home: high unemployment, high prices (=riots), tax protests

    • Fearful of continued protests at home Townshend decided to place new taxes on the colonists

    • The Townshend Revenue Acts placed taxes on lead, glass, paint, paper, and tea

      • Townshend hoped that because it was an external tax (tax paid on imports) not an internal tax (similar to sales tax) the colonists would not protest as much

      • Despite Franklin’s belief, the colonists saw little distinction

Save your money and save your country2
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • John Dickinson responded to the Townshend Revenue Acts by writing Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania

    • Said Parliament had the right to regulate (tax) foreign trade but did not have the right to raise revenues in America

      • Logic: if the taxes were used to pay royal officials then those officials would not be answerable to the colonies, but rather to Parliament

  • Other Americans believed that the taxes were Britain’s way of suppressing their liberties

    • This fear was furthered by Townshend’s creation of the Board of Commissioners of the Customs and the extension of the vice-admiralty courts

Save your money and save your country3
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • Some began to call for violent resistance but Dickinson’s words calmed the public

    • “Let us behave like dutiful children who have received unmerited blows from a beloved parent.”

    • Independence is not on anyone’s mind yet

  • Nonimporation (nonconsumption) was a harder sale this time to the merchants since the economy was on an upswing

    • Artisans liked it because it meant people would buy homemade goods

    • Coercion (protests, publishing non-compliance, etc) was a large part of the new movement

Save your money and save your country4
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • Women were actively involved in nonimportation

    • They were often referred to as the Daughters of Liberty

    • They refused to wear imported silk, satin, and linen…instead they worn “homespun”

    • Many women also stopped serving tea

  • The movement was strengthened when Virginia House of Burgesses (their state legislative branch) banned goods imported from Britain that were listed on the Townshend Revenue Act

    • Luxury commodities and slaves were also included

    • Within a few months, all but NH had passed similar laws

    • British imports fell 41% in the first year (higher in some areas)

    • By 1770 the Townshend duties had only collected £20,000 in revenue causing English merchants to protest (again)

Save your money and save your country5
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • Boston, MA was the center of resistance

    • Samuel Adams, backed by the MA House of Representatives, wrote a letter calling for all colonies to find a way to “harmonize with each other”

    • The MA governor, Francis Bernard, dissolved the legislature

    • Lord Hillsborough, Sec. of State for the colonies, informed all governors that if their states endorsed Adams’ letter, then their state legislatures were to be dissolved as well

      • By the time the message got there, NH, NJ, and CT had endorsed it and VA passed a circular calling for a “hearty union” against British measures of enslavement

Save your money and save your country6
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • Hillsborough demanded that the newly elected MA House of Representatives rescind Adams’ letter

    • In a vote of 92-17 they voted to defy the governor

  • John Hancock’s sloop Liberty was seized for nonpayment of taxes

    • Colonists assaulted customs officers who in turn fled

    • The colonists met at a provincial meeting (since they didn’t have a legislature again) and discussed ways of dealing with the British

    • Britain, fearful of armed resistance, placed infantry and artillery, in Boston on Oct. 1, 1768

Save your money and save your country7
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • The regulars stationed in the colonies were often tormented

    • Sons of Liberty members would erect “liberty poles” with flags and banners supporting their message

    • In NY the assembly agreed to support the British troops there which led to a protest by the Sons

      • British soldiers chopped down the pole and put the pieces in front of the tavern the Sons frequented

      • A riot ensued where regulars used Bayonets, wounding several

  • Conflicts took place in Boston as well

    • One resulted in the death of an 11 year-old (killed by a customs office, not a soldier)

    • Adams played up the regulars’ behaviors such as taunting women and picking fights

Save your money and save your country8
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • These conflicts continued on and in March 1770 a soldier looking for a part-time job was rudely denied

    • He came back with his friends the next day and a small riot ensued

    • Fighting continued into the following days and came to a head on March 5 when a crowd gathered at the custom house to taunt the guard

    • Calling for backup, the soldiers quickly became freightened for their lives and began firing into the crowd in what becomes known as the Boston Massacre

      • Three died immediately, 6 wounded, 2 died later

      • Of the dead was Crispus Attucks, a black Indian

Save your money and save your country9
“Save Your Money and Save Your Country”

  • The same day as the Boston Massacre, Parliament repealed most of the Townshend Revenue Acts

    • This time they didn’t issue a Declaratory act, instead they maintained the tax on tea to show supremacy

From resistance to rebellion
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • In 1772, Gov. Hutchinson (MA) announced his salary and those appointed would be paid by the Crown

    • Boston developed a Committee of Correspondence to communicate with other towns about the issue

    • Adams published a series of writing in the Boston Pamphlet—pushing the idea that Britain was attempting to enslave Americans

  • Before long other colonies would create committees to communicate with each other (PN is the only one who doesn’t)

From resistance to rebellion1
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • Gov. Hutchinson enraged colonists when he said that they were mistaken if they thought they would enjoy all the rights of an Englishman

    • He continued to say that the Parliament was supreme over the colonies

  • A letter, intercepted by Benjamin Franklin, from Gov. Hutchinson to Parliament, said he wished to see the colonists liberties further restrained

    • This was the “smoking gun” for the conspiracy theorists

From resistance to rebellion2
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • Because the East India Company was the center of Britain’s control over India, they could not let it fail as colonist boycotted tea

    • Britain lowered the prices attempting to tempt back colonists , an action deemed evidence of the corrupt British government

    • In Oct. a group called the Committee for Tarring and Feathering threatened those who allowed Tea Cargo ships to dock at port

      • Many officials stepped down

    • When ships docked in Boston the governor refused to let them turn around and the colonists refused to let them empty the cargo

From resistance to rebellion4
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • Adams declared “This meeting can do nothing more to save the country.”

    • This was a sign to those who knew the plan to march to the wharf disguised as Indians

    • They boarded the ship and dumped 45 tons of tea (£18,000) while the crowd cheered

    • “Boston Harbor’s a tea-pot tonight”

    • NYC followed suit

    • Annapolis and NJ burned the ship in their ports

  • Boston’s actions were most notable to the King

    • “we are now to dispute whether we have, or have not, any authority in that country”

From resistance to rebellion5
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • During the spring of 1774, Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts in order to punish Massachusetts

    • Boston Port Bill: closed Boston Harbor (until tea was paid for)

    • Massachusetts Government Act: annulled MA colonial charter

    • Administration of Justice Act: British officials would not be tried in colonial courts

    • Quartering Act: made it legal to house troops in private homes

    • Quebec Act: created a highly centralized government for Canada

From resistance to rebellion6
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • In May, Thomas Gage arrived in Boston to replace Hutchinson as governor

    • Boston attempted to revive non-importation measures

    • Virginia, despite getting in trouble, ordered a day of mourning for the “hostile invasion” that occurred in Boston

From resistance to rebellion7
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • Amid the crisis, the colonial assemblies sent representatives to the first Continental Congress in September of 1774

    • Many of the men who would become the founding fathers were in attendance

    • No one was calling for war at this point

    • Declaration and Resolves passed

      • Stating they were all Englishmen

      • Their rights had been violated by 13 acts since 1763

      • Until these 13 were repealed, the colonies would not import or export goods to Britain or her other colonies

From resistance to rebellion8
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • The Continental Congress set up Committees of Observation and Safety in every county

    • These committees closely watched fellow citizens to suppress loyalist opinion

    • This is when people first began to refer to the colonies as the “American states”

From resistance to rebellion9
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • British Regulars were sent to seize cannon and ammunition from Charlestown and Cambridge, MA

    • This leads the Massachusetts Provincial Congress to create the Committee of Safety, which allowed them to call up the militia

    • General Gage requested reinforcements to squelch the rebellion

    • King George privately acknowledges that war is coming

    • Parliament attempted to ease the tension, but then passed another law restraining colonial commerce

From resistance to rebellion10
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • Patrick Henry predicted that hostility would build

    • “I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death”

    • Three weeks later, Gage was ordered to attack the MA militia

From resistance to rebellion11
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • On April 18, 1775, 700 troops move from Boston to Concord to seize ammunition

    • Paul Revere and William Dawes were sent to alert Concord

    • When the British reached Lexington, there were already 70 armed minutemen on the green in the center of town

      • Ordered to lay down arms and disperse

      • They began to leave, but carried their weapons with them

      • Without orders, British soldiers began firing, killing 8 and wounding 10

From resistance to rebellion12
From Resistance to Rebellion

  • The British march on to Concord, where they burn some supplies

    • News of the incident in Lexington had spread throughout the neighboring communities

    • Seeing the smoke from Concord, the militiamen thought the British were burning towns

    • The British were ambushed in Concord, losing 3 soldiers

    • Attacked continuously on the march back to Boston, the British suffered 73 dead and 202 wounded or missing

    • MA militia lost 95 men