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Entheogenic Tryptamines of Shamanic Origins : Ayahuasca Psilocybin. Presented By: Stacey King, Derek Lee, and Steven Phillips 01/19/01. History. Definition:
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Derek Lee, and Steven Phillips
An Amazonian brew, also called yage, containing powerful hallucinogenic alkaloids used for spiritual purposes. In native Quechuan language “ayahuasca” means “vine of the dead.”
--Pre-Columbian rock drawings
--Early explorer- Richard Spruce
--Medicine of the Amazonian shamans
Prayer and fasting
Banisteriopsis caapi - Vine of the soul
Psychotria viridis - Chacruna
Pulverize B. Caapi and boil with P. viridis and other admixture plants for 12- 15 hours
Natural vs. synthetic
“Elves”, mandala-like designs, life visions
Statically higher upregulation of serotonin receptors (Callaway et. al., 1994)
EEG shows a higher activity in the visual band (Don et. al., 1998)
An enzyme that oxidatively deaminates other biogenic amines such as serotonin, tryptamine, and tyramine, rendering them inactive.
Inhibitors: Beta- Carbolines
Taking food with Tyramine
increases levels of Epinephrine
resulting in high blood pressure,
treated with nifedipine or clonidine
Toxic Serotomimetic Reaction:
a.k.a. serotonin syndrome
Overstimulation of serotonin
causing rigidity, shivering, and
and confusion, treated with
Foods to Avoid!!!!!
(sausage, bologna, salami)
Chocolate and Coffee (lg. amts.)
IV injection---- .4 mg/kg
inhalation------ .7 mg/kg
IM injection---- 1 mg/kg
oral-------------- inactive unless in presence of MAO inhibitor
.38 mg/kg threshold to .8 mg/kg for strong
DMT + harmine: 45-60 min incubation
build within 30 min of incubation
plateau 45-60 min
1 hour of diminishing effects
inhalation: instant peak effects lasting 5-10 min
residual effects 30-60 min
Baskys, A Remington, G (1996): “Brain Mechanisms and Psychotropic Drugs”.
Callaway, J et. al. (1994): “Platelet Serotonin Uptake Sites Increased in Drinkers of Ayahuasca”. Psychopharmacology 116: (3) 385-387
Chin and Kovarikova (1967): “Pharmacology and Toxicology of Toad Venom”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 56:1535-41
Don N et. al. (1998): “Effects of Ayahuasca on the Human EEG”. Phytomedicine 5: (2) 87-96
McBride, M (2000): “Bufotenine: Toward an Understanding of Possible Psychoactive Mechanisms”. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 32: (3) 321-331
Ott, J (1999): “Pharmahuasca: Human Pharmacology of Oral DMT Plus Harmine”. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 31: (2) 171-177
Perrine, D (1996): “The Chemistry of Mind-Altering Drugs”.