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Entheogenic Tryptamines of Shamanic Origins : Ayahuasca Psilocybin. Presented By: Stacey King, Derek Lee, and Steven Phillips 01/19/01. History. Definition:

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entheogenic tryptamines of shamanic origins ayahuasca psilocybin

Entheogenic Tryptamines of Shamanic Origins :Ayahuasca Psilocybin

Presented By:

Stacey King,

Derek Lee, and Steven Phillips

01/19/01

history
History

Definition:

An Amazonian brew, also called yage, containing powerful hallucinogenic alkaloids used for spiritual purposes. In native Quechuan language “ayahuasca” means “vine of the dead.”

Folk Use:

--Pre-Columbian rock drawings

--Early explorer- Richard Spruce

--Medicine of the Amazonian shamans

preparation
Preparation

Gathering:

Prayer and fasting

Ingredients/Botany:

Banisteriopsis caapi - Vine of the soul

Psychotria viridis - Chacruna

Diplopterys cabrerana

Peganum harmala

others

Preparation:

Pulverize B. Caapi and boil with P. viridis and other admixture plants for 12- 15 hours

Synthetic Versions:

Pharmahuasca

effects
Effects

The Purge:

Natural vs. synthetic

Hallucination:

“Elves”, mandala-like designs, life visions

Physiological:

Statically higher upregulation of serotonin receptors (Callaway et. al., 1994)

EEG shows a higher activity in the visual band (Don et. al., 1998)

monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

Monoamine oxidase:

An enzyme that oxidatively deaminates other biogenic amines such as serotonin, tryptamine, and tyramine, rendering them inactive.

Inhibitors: Beta- Carbolines

  • Ayahuasca = 158 mg/dose Pharmahuasca = 1.5 mg/kg
  • Harmaline and harmine (dihydroharmine and tetrahydroharmine) found in B. caapi and P. harmala are reversible inhibitors of MAO-A found in the CNS and MAO-B found in the gastrointestinal tract
  • Evidence: clinical trial by McKenna, Towers, and Abbott (1984)
  • Effects:Beta-carbolines from P. harmala alone elicit a sedative, valium-like psychoactivity, in constrast to B. caapi which is more of a mood up-lifter. Minor hallucinogenic properties in high doses
    • harmala as an abortificant
beta carboline structures
Beta-Carboline Structures

Harmaline

Tetrahydroharmine

Harmine

slide9

Hypertensive crisis:

Taking food with Tyramine

increases levels of Epinephrine

resulting in high blood pressure,

treated with nifedipine or clonidine

Toxic Serotomimetic Reaction:

a.k.a. serotonin syndrome

Overstimulation of serotonin

causing rigidity, shivering, and

and confusion, treated with

5-HT2 blockers

Foods to Avoid!!!!!

Cheese

Alcoholic beverages

Ginseng

Aged Meat

(sausage, bologna, salami)

Soy sauce

Chocolate and Coffee (lg. amts.)

dmt dimethyltryptamine
DMT(dimethyltryptamine)
  • Taxa containing DMT: Psychotria viridis, Diplopterys cabrerana, Mimosa hostilis, Homo sapiens, several others
  • Peripheral effects include: increased blood pressure, heart rate, core body temperature, endorphins, prolactin, and pupil dilation
  • Hallucinogenic effects of ayahuasca due to DMT
slide12

Routes of administration: in order of potency (strong effects)

IV injection---- .4 mg/kg

inhalation------ .7 mg/kg

IM injection---- 1 mg/kg

oral-------------- inactive unless in presence of MAO inhibitor

.38 mg/kg threshold to .8 mg/kg for strong

  • Duration (results will vary)

DMT + harmine: 45-60 min incubation

build within 30 min of incubation

plateau 45-60 min

1 hour of diminishing effects

inhalation: instant peak effects lasting 5-10 min

residual effects 30-60 min

what humans the new source of dmt
What? Humans the new source of DMT!?
  • Small amounts of DMT are found in human spinal fluid, blood, and urine.
  • Methyl transferases catalyse synthesis of tryptamines are found in the human lung, brain, cerbrospinal fluid, liver and heart.
  • Transmethylation Hypothesis:
    • Schizophrenics produce a higher concentration of methylated indolealkyalamines (eg. DMT)
proposed mechanism of action
Proposed Mechanism of Action
  • DMT acts on serotonin receptors (5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT5B, 5-HT7) which are G- protein coupled and contain a 7 transmembrane domain structure
  • The function of these receptors include: stimulating phospolipase C, increasing phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and increasing cAMP
slide19

History

  • Archaeological evidence from 1000 B.C.E.
  • Spanish conquistadors
  • Gordon Wasson
  • Alkaloid determination
  • Timothy Leary, inmates, CIA, and hippies
slide20

Psychopharmacology

  • Threshold dose = 5 mg
  • Typical dose = 10-20 mg
  • 30 times more potent than mescaline
  • .01 times as potent as LSD
  • Subjective comparison to LSD vs. Leary’s hypothesis: less abstract, not a stimulant
  • Duration: 4-6 hours
  • Oral Activity
  • Potentiated by MAOI but not required
bufotenine does it really work
Bufotenine: Does it really work?
  • Structurally similar to known psychoactive tryptamines
  • Binds at same serotonin receptors as known psychoactive
  • tryptamines
  • Other “goodies” in the toad
  • Can it reach the brain?
  • Partition Coefficients
  • DrugPart. Coef.
  • 5-MeO-DMT 3.30
  • Psilocin 3.30
  • Bufotenine 0.06
  • The epinephrine factor (Chen & Kovarikova, 1967.)
  • B. alvarius vs. B. marinus
references
References

Baskys, A Remington, G (1996): “Brain Mechanisms and Psychotropic Drugs”.

Callaway, J et. al. (1994): “Platelet Serotonin Uptake Sites Increased in Drinkers of Ayahuasca”. Psychopharmacology 116: (3) 385-387

Chin and Kovarikova (1967): “Pharmacology and Toxicology of Toad Venom”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 56:1535-41

Don N et. al. (1998): “Effects of Ayahuasca on the Human EEG”. Phytomedicine 5: (2) 87-96

McBride, M (2000): “Bufotenine: Toward an Understanding of Possible Psychoactive Mechanisms”. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 32: (3) 321-331

Ott, J (1999): “Pharmahuasca: Human Pharmacology of Oral DMT Plus Harmine”. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 31: (2) 171-177

Perrine, D (1996): “The Chemistry of Mind-Altering Drugs”.