Test Yourself… • What kinds of drugs do you know or hear about most? • What effects do you think these drugs have on you? • Drugs come in 3 different categories. Can you name them?
Types of Drugs • Drug – any substance taken to change a person’s physical, mental or emotional state • Depressant – a drug which causes the functions of an organ to slow down • Stimulant – a drug which stimulates the central nervous system, giving a feeling of alertness and energy • Hallucinogen =- the apparent belief that an external object not actually present is real • Narcotic – literally, that which makes numb or deadens pain
DRUG USE IN Ontario, grades 7-12 2001-2003 • G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 G12 TOTAL • ALCOHOL 39.1 48.9 65.1 75.1 79.9 82.5 66.2 • CANNABIS 6.2 10.7 27.9 35.9 45.0 44.8 29.6 • HALLUCINOGENS 1.8 2.6 7.8 12.5 17.4 15.3 10.0 • COCAINE 1.9 3.6 4.9 4.6 6.9 6.7 4.8 • ECSTACY 0.5 0.8 3.7 4.6 6.6 7.2 4.1 • LSD 0.7 1.1 3.7 4.2 4.0 2.7 2.9 • CRACK 1.7 2.7 3.1 3.0 3.6 2.5 2.7 • HEROIN 0.8 1.4 1.5 2.0 1.3 1.1 1.4
Drug Abuse A person who abuses drugs may display one or many of the following problems: • Intoxications symptoms • Inability to cut down or stop use • The need for daily use of the substance • Impairment of social functioning or display anti-social behaviour • The use of any drug for a reason other then it’s intended purpose • Excessive use of legal “social” drugs – alcohol, caffeine, tobacco • Combining two or more substances in order to obtain a more intense high
Dependency • Psychological dependency – an emotional state of craving a drug for either its positive effects or negative effects caused by its absence • Physical dependency – when the body has adapted to a drug and cannot function normally without it (ie) withdrawl symptoms
Early Signs of Drug Abuse… • Behaviour at school or work changes • Trouble paying attention • Levels of efficiency fall dramatically • Lack of motivation • Lack of concern about physical appearance • Argumentative – quick to pick a fight • Loss of interest in usual pursuits • Unexplained absence from work or school • Need for more money • Circle of friends changes
Gateway Drugs • Tolerance • Gate way drugs
Marijuana • Why do teens smoke marijuana? • Boredom • Fun • Stress • Peer pressure • Relax • Excitement • Gate way drug
MARIJUANA • Consider these facts before you decide to smoke MARIJUANA. • There are more cancer-causing agents in marijuana than in any other substance presently known to man. • Crude marijuana contains more carcinogens (one hundred fifty more) and in greater concentration than tobacco. • One joint deposits four times as much cancer-causing tars in the smoker's airways as does tobacco smoke. • Smoking three to five joints a week is equal in harmful effects to smoking 16 cigarettes daily. • Smoking one joint a day is equal to a pack of cigarettes daily. • Three joints smoked per week for three to six months carries the same probability of developing lung cancer as smoking a pack of cigarettes daily for 20 to 30 years.
Common Street Names: Pot, Reefer, Grass, Weed, Dope, Ganja, Mary Jane, Bud, Yellow Submarine. • HOW USED:Rolled into cigarettes or cigars, smoked or eaten. • DETECTABLE IN BODY: up to 28 days after use. • Effects:red eyes, dry mouth and throat, drowsiness, impair motor skills, loss of motivation interest, memory and concentration difficulties develop. • THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) is the main active chemical which alters your mind.
The list is not over… • Because a pot smoker tends to breathe in the smoke more deeply and hold it longer than the tobacco user, greater harm is done to the lungs. • Five times as much carbon monoxide (associated with coronary diseases) is inhaled in marijuana smoke as in tobacco smoke. • Prolonged exposure to marijuana smoke can cause emphysema-like symptoms, cancer of the lungs, mouth, and tongue, and leukemia in children born from marijuana-smoking mothers. • Cases of cancer reported in users in their 20's and 30's include cancer of the mouth, jaw, tongue, larynx, head, neck, and lungs. Normally these cancers would occur between the ages of 55 and 60. • Slows ability to reason and make good decisions. Slows reaction time. Impairs memory. Makes you paranoid…
TOP TEN REASONS WHY TO AVOID MARIJUANA 1. It’s illegal. Using, holding, buying, selling can get you suspended, convicted or expelled 2. Risky to your Health 3. Reduces coordination and concentration 4. You are what you wear. 5. Hurts education, family
TOP TEN continued 6. Resist peer pressure. Not easy at first, but less pressure as they become aware. 7. You do not need it. Doesn’t make you cool 8. It’s not always what it seems. May be laced 9. Use will not help escape problems. 10. Everybody is “Not” doing it. Will not make you happy, popular or learn skills.
Still think Marijuana is a harmless drug? Want a smile looking like this? I don’t think so!!!
HEROIN This is a picture of heroin that has been chopped and ready for use.
DRUG TYPE:Heroin • STREET NAME:Dope, Smack, Horse, Mud, Brown sugar, Junk, Black tar, and Big H and China White • LOOKS LIKE:Varies in colour fromWhite to dark-brown powder or sticky black tar like substance • HOW USED: Injected, smoked, or inhaled • DETECTABLE IN BODY:1 to 4 days
The negative consequences of heroin use range from mild distress to life threatening dangers and include: • Dry, itchy skin and skin infections • Constricted pupils and reduced night vision • Nausea and vomiting • Constipation and loss of appetite • Menstrual irregularity • Reduced sex drive • Scarring ("tracks") along veins and collapsed veins from repeated injections • Irregular blood pressure Paying the Price of Heroin Use This picture shows a heroin addict that has skin abscesses from repeated injections
You thought the list was over didn’t you… • Slow and irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) • Fatigue, breathlessness, and labored, noisy breathing due to excessive fluid in the lungs ("the rattles") • Injuries that result from engaging in any activity (such as working, driving, or operating machinery) when incapacitated by heroin use • Dependence, addiction • Hepatitis, AIDS, and other infections from unsanitary injection • Stroke or heart attack caused by blood clots resulting from insoluble additives • Respiratory paralysis, heart arrest, coma, and death from accidental overdose
DRUG TYPE:Cocaine • STREET NAME:Base, Beam, Coke, Snow, Nose Candy, Flake, Blow, Big C, Lady, White, and Snowbirds • LOOKS LIKE:White crystalline powder which is soluble in water. • HOW USED:Inhaled, sniffed, eaten or rubbed onto mucous membranes • DETECTABLE IN BODY: 2 to 4 days • Effects: euphoria, alert, rapid heart beat and breathing, sweating, high body temperature, erratic or violent behaviour, tremors, suspiciousness, hallucinations etc. Take note at her nose defect, due to snorting
This is the slice of a brain, of a cocaine addict who died from an overdose. The large dark lesion is a massive brain hemorrhage associated to the use of cocaine
DRUG TYPE:CrackCocaine • STREET NAME:Crack, rock, freebase • LOOKS LIKE:White to tan pellets or crystalline rocks that look like soap • HOW USED:Smoked • DETECTABLE IN BODY: 2 to 4 days • Effects: Constricted blood vessels and increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure, restlessness, irritability, anxiety, violence and paranoia. Additional risks of smoking crack include respiratory problems such as shortness of breath, chest pains, lung trauma and bleeding.
FAST FACTS • Crack Cocaine is produced by dissolving powdered cocaine in a mixture of water and ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). The mixture is boiled until a solid substance forms. The solid is removed from the liquid, dried, and then broken into the chunks (rocks) that are sold as crack cocaine. • Because crack cocaine is smoked, the user experiences a high in less than 10 seconds. • Crack Cocaine produces an intense ‘rush’ or sense of joy with feelings of increased energy and heightened senses such as sight, sound, smell, etc. • The “joy” usually wears off in about 10 minutes, followed by a ‘crash’, marked by feelings of anxiety, confusion, and often depression. Because of its potency and short-lived high, crack is extremely addictive. • Low doses of crack may create a perception of enhanced feelings of sexuality, particularly in male users. Crack increases motor activity of users and reduces the perceived need for food and sleep. • Users have reported having ‘coke bugs’, a feeling of having insects crawling on them.
What do you want to look like at age 38? I hope not like Roseanne Holland. This is what Crack Cocaine will do to you over a 20 year period. Think twice before you act.
DRUG TYPE: Psilocybin • STREET NAME: Magic Mushrooms, 'shrooms • LOOKS LIKE:Fresh or dried mushrooms • Is a species of fungus which contains chemicals that result in hallucinations when ingested. • HOW USED:Chewed, swallowed or mixed with other foods • DETECTABLE IN BODY: 6 hours • Effects:sensation of relaxation or fatigue, separation from surroundings, heaviness or lightness, dizziness, abdominal discomfort, sweating, psychologically dependent
FAST FACTS • After daily use for as little as three or four days, users build up tolerance. This means that no amount of the drug will produce the desired psychedelic effects. To feel them again, users must abstain for a few days. • Mushrooms containing psilocybin do not appear to cause physical dependence, even after long term use. Regular users may become mentally dependent on the way magic mushrooms make them feel.
ECSTASY • STREET NAMES: Hug Drug, Adam, Eve, X, XTC, E, Roll and Bean, Clarity, Essence, Lover’s Speed • LOOKS LIKE: coloured tablets (often branded with designer symbols)- capsules, powder • HOW USED: Synthetic drug (stimulant & hallucinogenic effects) taken orally • Effects: • Drains the brain or an important chemical called seratonin. Causes exhaustion at which point they may collapse and even die! • Water consumption makes drug more harmful. Too much can cause brain to swell.
Panic Attacks Hallucinations Paranoid Thinking Blurred Vision Increased Heart Rate Feelings of well-being (happiness, love) Increased Blood Pressure Dehydration Hypothermia Fainting DEATH! HAZARDS
Signs of Overdose • Loss of consciousness or coma • Faster breathing • Seizures or uncontrollable twitching • Overheating • Racing or irregular heart beat • Chest pain
Where to get help!! • Talk to someone you trust. (ie. Parent, friend, teacher, doctor, health nurse, or a guidance or addiction counselor. • Self help groups such as Alcoholics, Cocaine or Narcotics Anonymous. • Kids Help Phone @ 1-800-565-8603 • Centre for Addiction and Mental Health