INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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introduction to anatomy physiology l.
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INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

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  1. INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

  2. DEFINITIONS • Anatomy • “to cut apart” • Study of Bodily Structure • Includes: • Systemic or Regional • Gross or Microscopic • Developmental • Imaging

  3. DEFINITIONS continued • Physiology • “study of nature” • Study of Bodily Function • Includes: • Cell Physiology • Pathophysiology • Immunology • Exercise Physiology

  4. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION • Chemical • Atoms, Molecules • Cellular • Organelles, Cells • Tissue • Groups of Cells • Organ • 2 or more tissue types • Specific functions • Recognizable shape

  5. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION continued • System • Groups of organs with common functions • 11 organ systems • Organismal • Highest level • All parts of organism

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE • Maintain Boundaries • Inside/Outside • Cell Membranes, Integument • Movement • Responsiveness • Sense & React • Digestion • Breakdown & Absorb

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE continued • Metabolism • Cellular Chemical Reactions • Excretion • Growth • Increase in Size and/or Number of Cells • Reproduction • Cellular & Organismal

  8. FACTORS REQUIRED FOR LIFE • Water • Food • Oxygen • Heat • Pressure

  9. HOMEOSTASIS • Homeostasis • “Unchanging” • Maintaining a relatively stable internal environment, regardless of external conditions. • Allows changes within narrow limits. • “Dynamic Equilibrium”

  10. HOMEOSTASIS continued • Requires: • Receptor – to detect changes • Control Center – to determine set point (normal) and appropriate response to deviations • Effector – to respond to change

  11. REGULATION OF HOMEOSTASIS • Negative Feedback System • Common • Reverses Change • Results in Fluctuations about Set Point • Positive Feedback System • Rare • Change is increased • May be Harmful

  12. TERMINOLOGY • Anatomical Position • Erect, Palms Forward • Directional Terms • Explain Relative Location of Body Parts • Many Paired Opposites • Regional Terms • Refer to Specific Body Parts, Regions • Divided into Anterior & Posterior Landmarks

  13. TERMINOLOGY continued • Body Planes • Frontal (Coronal) • Vertical, Divides into Anterior & Posterior • Transverse • Horizontal, Divides into Superior & Inferior • Sagittal (Para- & Mid-) • Vertical, Divides into Right & Left • Oblique • Diagonal, Between Vertical & Horizontal

  14. TERMINOLOGY continued • Body Cavities (Protect & Allow for Growth/Change) • Dorsal & Ventral form during embryological development • Dorsal • Cranial - Brain • Spinal or Vertebral – Spinal Cord

  15. BODY CAVITIES continued • Ventral • Thoracic • Pleural - Lungs • Mediastinal – Between Lungs • Pericardial – Heart; division of mediastinal • Abdominopelvic • Abdominal (Peritoneal) • Pelvic