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Culture, Creativity, Innovation

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  1. Culture, Creativity, Innovation Ch 14 Part 1: April 19

  2. Org Culture • Framework of attitudes, values, norms, expectations shared among org members • Difference between espousedand enacted cultures • Common dimensions: • What are typical dimensions along which culture is measured? • Possible to have several cultures, called subcultures

  3. Ben Schneider (SIOP ’05 presentation) • Distinctions betw culture and climate • Culture concerns beliefs & values exemplified by how orgs behave and the myths/stories that perpetuate it • Climate concerns what happens in orgs, meaning people attach to it, & behavior and attitudes that follow

  4. (cont.) • Climate has a longer history: • Lewin (1939) – • 1960’s – • 1975 – B. Schneider’s climate for ____ • 2000 – Zohar – • Method preference?

  5. (cont.) • Culture’s history in orgs: • Pettigrew (1979) – • Deal & Kennedy (1982) – • Schein (1985; 1992) – • Frost (1991) – • Predominant methodology?

  6. Functions of Org Culture • Provides sense of identity • Strong cultures increase org commitment • Clarify norms, rules to newcomers

  7. Deciphering Culture • Use artifacts – observable symbols • Examples? • Survey employees • How can this be problematic? • Observation • Best approach is combination

  8. Identifying Culture • Goffee & Jones (98) – Double S Cube • 2 dimensions of culture – • Sociability (friendliness of members) • Can promote creativity or can promote ingroup/outgroup distinctions • Solidarity (share understanding of tasks) • Can increase coordination or can promote ingroup/outgroup distinctions

  9. Double S Cube • Combination of 2 dimensions results in 4 types of cultures: • Possibility of different subcultures; changes over time; no data on which is best

  10. Deal & Kennedy • Culture as ‘the way things get done around here.’ • Measured in terms of: • Feedback • Risk • 4 types of cultures: • Tough-guy/macho culture: • Work hard/play hard: • Bet your company culture: • Process culture:

  11. Formation of Culture • Impact of org founder’s personality • Adaptation to marketplace/environment • How is culture learned? • Examples? • What is culture’s effect on performance?

  12. Changing Cultures • What affects change in cultures? • Strategies for merging cultures: • Assimilation • Deculturation • Integration • Separation

  13. Strengthening Cultures • Actions of leaders • Introduce culturally consistent rewards • Maintain stable workforce • Selection process (screen for culture fit) • Socialization process (mold new ees)