10th Lit. Fall Final STUDY GUIDE NON-FICTION
Author’s Perspective • The judgments, attitudes, and experiences the author brings to the work • Firsthand experience (use of personal pronouns: “I” “me”)
Question 1 • “When I hit the water, I went all the way under. I hadn’t intended to do that; I hadn’t wanted to immerse my head. Dog-paddling as quickly as I could, I popped up in the water, gasping for air.” • Which of the following does the author use to create this selection? • Historical research • Technical knowledge • Firsthand experience
Answer • C) firsthand experience
Making Predictions • An EDUCATED guess, based on what you have already read. • PAY ATTENTION TO DETAILS!!! • Use your prior knowledge of how events really happen to make predictions.
Question 2 • “The water temperature on the big swim would be a degree colder. Thirty-two degrees. That was a magic number, the temperature at which freshwater froze. I wondered if in thirty-two degree water, the water in my cells would freeze.” • What prior knowledge would be helpful in making a prediction on whether the swim would be a success? • Knowledge of human biology • Knowledge of swimming techniques • Knowledge about weather
Answer • A) Knowledge of human biology
Author’s Purpose • To inform - provide information • To entertain - funny, suspenseful • To persuade - convince • To explain – “How-to” • To describe – sensory words
Question 3 I like pond skating best by moonlight. The hollow among the hills will always have a bit of mist about it, let the sky be clear as it may. The moonlight, which seems so lucid and brilliant when you look up, is all pearl and smoke round the pond and the hills. The shore that was like iron under your heel as you came down to the ice is vague, when you look back at it from the center of the pond, as the memory of a dream. The motion is like flying in a dream; you float free and the world floats under you; your velocity is without effort and without accomplishment, for, speed as you may, you leave nothing behind and approach nothing. What is the author’s most likely purpose for writing this selection? • to inform • to convince • to tell a story • to describe
Answer • D) to describe
Irony/Paradox • Paradox – two contradictory statements reveal a truth: “jumbo shrimp” • Verbal Irony – what you say does not match what you really mean: “I don’t mind being short,” said Mary, while wearing 3” heels. • Situational irony – when the ending is a surprise and unexpected: “After making fun of home alarms, Mark’s house was burglarized.”
Question 4 • In “How Much Land Does a Man Need?”, the main character ended up with just 6’ of land after spending years acquiring acres and acres. What is this an example of? • A paradox • Situational irony • Verbal irony
Answer • B) situational irony
Informational TextTechnical Directions • PAY ATTENTION TO DETAILS! • PAY ATTENTION TO THE ORDER OF STEPS! • Is there any important information left out that results in confusion???
Question 5 Follow these steps to install this CD drive in your computer • Unplug your computer from all power sources. • Open an unused bay on your computer. 3) Slide the drive into the computer bay. 4) Attach the green wire on the CD drive to an unused power source in your computer. 5) Plug the audio cable on the CD drive into an unused audio slot in your computer. • Plug in the computer. Which statement is accurate according to the directions? • You should leave the computer turned on while you install the CD drive. • You should plug in the CD drive’s audio cable before you unplug the computer. • You should connect the drive’s green wire before you connect the drive’s audio cable. d) You should slide the drive into the c
Answer • C) connect the drive’s green wire before connecting the drive’s audio cable.
TONE Look for Key Words: • Is the author trying to create a mood of joy, sadness, horror, anger, suspense, fear??? • Is the author mocking a subject? Neutral? Enthusiastic? • Is the author writing in a formal or informal style?
Question 6 People accustomed to the monster mile-wide Mississippi, grow accustomed to associating the term “river” with a high degree of watery grandeur. Consequently, such people feel rather disappointed when they stand on the shores of the Humboldt or the Carson and find that a “river” in Nevada is a sickly rivulet which is just the counterpart of the Erie canal in all respects save that the canal is twice as long and four times as deep. One of the pleasantest and most invigorating exercises one can contrive is to run and jump across the Humboldt river till he is overheated, and then drink it dry. Which of the following best describes the tone of this selection? • a) persuasive b) reflective • c) humorous d) biographical
Answer • C) Humorous • uses HYPERBOLE to create humor – gross exaggeration
Main Idea • Paraphrase – put the passage in your own words to help determine the main idea. • Ask yourself “What is this passage really about?”
Question 7 The earth, as everybody knows nowadays, is a spheroid, a sphere slightly compressed, orange fashion, with a diameter of nearly 8,000 miles. Its spherical shape has been known at least to a limited number of intelligent people for nearly 2,500 years, but before that time it was supposed to be flat, and various ideas which now seem fantastic were entertained about its relations to the sky and the stars and planets. We know now that it rotates upon its axis (which is about 24 miles shorter than its equatorial diameter) every twenty-four hours, and that this is the cause of the alternations of day and night, that it circles about the sun in a slightly distorted and slowly variable oval path in a year. What is the main idea of the selection? a) People’s ideas about the earth have changed over time. b) The earth is a spheroid that rotates on its axis and circles the sun. c) Earth’s diameter is 8,000 miles, and it is a variable distance from the sun. d) People now know that the earth is round.
Answer • B) the earth is a spheroid that rotates on its axis and circles the sun.