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Understanding Alcohol. ALCOHOL. Ethanol: psychoactive drug in alcoholic beverages. What are the 7 organs that are responsible for alcohol absorption and metabolization ?. The Path of Alcohol. Ethanol: psychoactive drug in alcoholic beverages. Path of Alcohol. MOUTH. STOMACH.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

ALCOHOL

Ethanol: psychoactive drug in alcoholic beverages

the path of alcohol
The Path of Alcohol

Ethanol: psychoactive drug in alcoholic beverages

Path of Alcohol

MOUTH

STOMACH

SMALL INTESTINE

HEART

BRAIN

LIVER

KIDNEYS

slide5

MOUTH

Some alcohol is absorbed; 20-30% is broken down by alcohol dehydrogenase

STOMACH

slide6

Main site of alcohol absorption

Blood Alcohol Concentration

SMALLINTESTINE

Amount of alcohol in the bloodstream

HEART

slide7

Depresses Central Nervous System (CNS)

BRAIN

ADH hormone – increases urine production

slide8

Main site of alcohol metabolism

0.5 oz per hour

LIVER

One drink per hour

12oz beer = 5 oz wine = 1.5 oz liquor

=

=

1.5 oz. 80 proofliquor

12 oz. Beer

5 oz. Wine

so how does impairment occur
So, how does impairment occur?
  • Blood Alcohol Concentration - BAC
  • The amount of alcohol in a person’s bloodstream.
factors that influence bac
Factors that influence BAC
  • Gender
    • Men v. Women
      • Alcohol Dehydrogenase
      • Body Fat
  • Body Composition/Weight
  • Metabolism
  • Time
      • Between drinks and cessation
  • Food content in the stomach
blood alcohol concentration
Blood Alcohol Concentration
  • The amount of alcohol in a person’s bloodstream.

Does a person’s tolerance effect their BAC?

Tolerance does NOT effect BAC. BAC will continue to rise! With tolerance, the onset of physical characteristics of impairment may not directly correlate with BAC.

review questions
Review Questions
  • List in order (7 structures/organs), the path that alcohol travels in the body from consumption to metabolization.
  • In ounces, how much is one drink? Include beer, wine, and liquor.
  • In ounces, how much alcohol is in one drink?
  • Extra Credit: A man and woman consume the same amount of alcohol. Based upon the general population, what are two reasons that the man may not be affected by the alcohol as much as the woman?
bac charts
BAC Charts

http://www.ou.edu/oupd/bac.htm

slide14

Alcohol Use and Abuse

Conditions

Impairment and Changes in Personality and Feelings

Consequences of Long Term Use and Abuse

Consequences of Single Use

slide16

Alcohol Use and Abuse

Conditions

Impairment and Changes in Personality and Feelings

Stroke and Brain Damage

Cancer

Cirrhosis of the liver

Consequences of Long Term Use and Abuse

Consequences of Single Use

consequences of alcohol use abuse
Consequences of Alcohol Use/Abuse
  • Depresses the immune system
  • Cirrhosis of the liver
  • Stroke
  • Cancer
  • Brain Damage
tolerance needing more and more of a substance to get the same effect
Tolerance: needing more and more of a substance to get the same effect
  • So does tolerance affect BAC?
    • NO! If you drink, BAC is going to rise; however if you have a high tolerance, the onset of physical characteristics of intoxication may not directly correlate with a person’s BAC.
mouth
MOUTH

- Alcohol enters the body

- Up to 5% of the alcohol is absorbed

STOMACH

  • 20% of the alcohol is absorbed
  • 20-30% of alcohol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase
  • travels through the pyloric valve to the small intestine
small intestine
SMALL INTESTINE
  • The remainder of the alcohol is absorbed

HEART

  • Pumps alcohol throughthe body
  • Blood vessels dilate
brain
BRAIN
  • Depresses the cerebral cortex
  • Pituitary gland releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and urine production increases
liver
LIVER
  • Metabolism occurs
  • Liver prioritizes the breakdown of alcohol over it’s normal functions.

KIDNEYS

  • Excreted from the body as urine
review questions1
Review Questions
  • 1. What is the psychoactive drug found in all alcoholic beverages?
  • 2. List in order, the 7 “organs” through which alcohol passes from consumption to urine production.
  • 3. What organ is the main site of alcohol absorption? Metabolization?
  • 4. If a person drinks 2 oz. of alcohol in one hour, how long will it take the liver to break it down? Why
alcohol poisoning
Alcohol Poisoning
  • SYMPTOMS
    • Vomiting and nausea – 1st sign!!!
      • Large concentrations of alcohol will close the pyloric valve, trapping the alcohol in the stomach. The irritation will cause vomiting.
    • Loss of reflexes
    • Loss of consciousness; “passed out”
    • Pulse is weak and rapid
    • Breathing is unusual or irregular (fewer than 8 breaths per minute)
    • Skin is cool (possibly damp), pale or bluish
    • You can not wake the person
consequences of alcohol use abuse1
Consequences of Alcohol Use/Abuse
  • Drunk Driving – Traffic Fatalities
  • Teenage pregnancy
  • Contributing factor to the top 3 causes of death among teens
      • Accidents
      • Suicide
      • Homicide
consequences of alcohol use abuse2
Consequences of Alcohol Use/Abuse
  • Depresses the immune system
  • Cirrhosis of the liver
  • Stroke
  • Cancer
  • Brain Damage
the effects of alcohol
The Effects of Alcohol
  • In low doses, alcohol produces:
    • a relaxing effect
    • reduces tension
    • lowers inhibitions
    • impairs concentration
    • slows reflexes
    • impairs reaction time
    • reduces coordination
the effects of alcohol1
The Effects of Alcohol
  • In medium doses, alcohol produces:
    • slurred speech
    • cause drowsiness
    • alter emotions
the effects of alcohol2
The Effects of Alcohol
  • In high doses, alcohol produces:
    • vomiting
    • breathing difficulties
    • unconsciousness
    • coma