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Detection of Most Distant Type- Ia Supernova Remnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B1422+231. Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo) Collaborator:

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slide1

Detection of Most Distant Type-IaSupernovaRemnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B1422+231

Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo)

Collaborator:

N. Kobayashi (Univ. of Tokyo), S. Kondo (Kyoto Sangyo Univ.), T. Tsujimoto (NAOJ), K. Okoshi (Tokyo Univ. of Science), T. Shigeyama (Univ. of Tokyo, RESCUE)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
    • QSO absorption-line systems
    • Gravitationally lensed QSOs
  • Observation
    • Target: B1422+231
    • Observation with Subaru IRCS
  • Results & Discussion
    • MgII absorption lines at z=3.54
    • The origin: type-Ia supernova remnant ?
  • Summary & Future Prospects
    • Preliminary results of our recent observation using AO188

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

1 introduction

1. Introduction

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

qso absorption line systems
QSO absorption-line systems

“QSO absorption-line systems” are gas clouds that give rise to absorption lines in the spectrum of background quasars.

They are an only tool that can trace high-z gas clouds without bias of luminosity.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

mgii systems
MgII systems

Doublet absorption lines of MgII (λλ2796, 2803)is the best lines to trace gas clouds associated with high-z galaxies.

  • MgII systems can be detected in wide redshift range.
  • MgII systems can trace various type of gas clouds in a wide range of HI column density.
      • 1015<N(HI)<1021 (Churchill+05)

MgII systems provide us precious information on the chemical and kinematical properties of high-z gas clouds.

  • Processes of galaxy formation that stars are formed from gas clouds are expected to be traced directly. (Kacprzak+11)
  • Complementary to the surveys of high-z galaxies with deep imaging.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

difficulty of single line of sight of qso
Difficulty of “single” line of sight of QSO
  • Observables from a set of absorption lines
    • Column densities, temperature
    • Chemical abundances, metalicity
  • Non-observables because we observe them with just a single line of sight.
    • Extent of gas clouds
    • Mass, volume density

The spatial structure of gas clouds is known to be one of a key parameters in galaxy formation theories. (Mo+99, Maller+04)

How large in

size or mass ?

Observer

QSO

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

multiple lines of sight of gravitationally lensed qsos
“Multiple” lines of sight of gravitationally lensed QSOs

Merits of gravitationally lensed QSOs (GLQSOs)

  • Split of images
    • We can observe multiple points of intervening gas clouds, which give us information of the spatial structure.
  • Magnification of images
    • We can resolve the structure of gas clouds in small scale even at high redshift.

QSO

Lensing

galaxy

Gas cloud

observer

“Effective” spatial resolution reaches just1mas!

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

spatial structure of mgii systems examined with glqsos
Spatial structure of MgII systems examined with GLQSOs

z=2.5

Optical ←|MgII lines| →Near-infrared

Past studies

Our study

lower-z

higher-z

large separation

observer

small separation

lensing galaxy

QSO

kpc-scale structure

・distribution of metal in halos/disks

・velocity field

pc-scale structure

・geometry, size

・origin (HVC,SNR,HII region)

Many studies have been done by high-dispersion observation with optical and UV spectroscopy

Rauch+ (00,01,02),Ellison+ (04)

Lopez+(97,05),Monier+ (97,09), etc..

Possible with near-infrared high-dispersion spectroscopy

Kobayashi+ (02), Hamano+ (12)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

Galactic scale structure

z~1

Molecular cloud scale structure

MgII

CIV

our purpose
Our purpose

In summary, our purpose is to investigate molecular clouds scale structure of high-z gas clouds traced by MgII systems at z>2.5 using multiple lines of sight of GLQSOs with near-infrared spectroscopy.

In this talk, I will show you a first result of our on-going study of “GLQSO absorption-line systems” with Subaru IRCS. (Hamano+12)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

2 observation

2. Observation

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

target
Target

Slitviewer image of B1422+231 obtained by Subaru IRCS w/ LGSAO188

B1422+231

  • z=3.628 (Rauch+99)
  • Four images and a lensing galaxy
  • Have the 2nd brightest luminosity in NIRamong QSOs ever detected
  • Known to have QSO absorption-line systems at z>2.5 (Rauch+99, 00, 01).
  • Due to the configuration, a very large magnification can be achieved at higher redshift.

This object is the most appropriate for our study.

Closest images, A and B (AB=0.5 arcsec),are observed this time.

0”.5

Lensing galaxy(z = 0.339,Tonry 98)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

telescope

Subaru telescope

Telescope
  • Subaru telescope
    • 8.2 m diameter
    • Known to have excellent stellar images among ground-based telescopes→ Best to resolve close lensed images of GLQSOs( ~ 0.5 arcsec)
  • IRCS(Infrared Camera and Spectrograph)
    • We used NIR echelle mode (high spectral resolution)→MgII absorption lines at z>2.5 can be observed

IRCS

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

observation analysis
Observation & Analysis
  • Open-use observation by N.Kobayashi
    • Wavelength : 1.01-1.38 μm (zJ & J bands)
    • Date : Feb. 13, 2003 ( zJ ), Apr. 28, 2002 ( J )
    • AO36 was used only for zJ band observation.
    • Resolution : R=5,000 ( zJ ) , R=10,000 ( J )
    • Time : 9,000 sec ( zJ ) , 9,600 sec ( J )
    • Seeing : 0.3 arcsec (excellent !!)
    • Weather condition : photometric
  • Data was reduced with IRAF.

0”.5

Obtained data

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

Photo of data

PSF image

3 results discussion

3. Results & Discussion

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

resolved spectra of b1422 231
Resolved spectra of B1422+231

MgII emissionof QSO itself

Spectra of images A and B of B1422+231

z=3.54 FeII lines

z=3.54 MgII doublet

Telluric absorption lines

Very small separation between images A and B :

AB = 8pc @ z=3.54 corresponds to 1 mas

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

resolved spectra of b1422 2311
Resolved spectra of B1422+231

Absorption lines at z=3.54

  • MgII absorption lines
    • Two components are detected with separation of ~ 200 km/s for both images.
    • Differences of absorption lines can be seen between A and B for both components.
  • FeII absorption lines
    • Only one component of image A is detected with large Doppler width.
  • MgI absorption lines
    • No detection

B

A

These absorption lines reflect pc-scale gaseous structure at high redshift.

Since now, we will discuss the structure and origin of the z=3.54 system.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

past study of the z 3 54 system
Past study of the z=3.54 system

Rauch+99

  • Optical obs. w/ Keck HIRES (R~45,000)
    • Images A and C are observed( AC=22pc @ z=3.54)
    • 2 velocity components are detected with low-ionization absorption lines (CII, SiII, etc.)
  • Symmetric profiles
    • Unique feature
    • Much difference of columndensities between images A and C
    • Velocities expand symmetrically from image A to image C

C

A

CII

By what type of gas clouds are these unique profiles produced ?

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

past study of the z 3 54 system1
Past study of the z=3.54 system

Interpretation of the z=3.54 system by Rauch+99

  • Explanation of differencesby a expanding shell.
  • Limit the expanding velocity

Outer shell produces stronger lines with smaller velocities

C

A

QSO

B

observer

A

Inner shell produces weaker lines with larger velocities

CII

C

Newly observed

Is spectrum of image B consistent with this model ?

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

o ur observation
Our observation

MgII absorption lines in the spectrum of image B is found to have intermediate column densities and velocities of those of images A and C

A

C

B

A,B:MgII

C:CII

C

A

CII

Our observation supports the expanding shell model proposed by Rauch+99, qualitatively.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

3d spherically expanding shell model
3D spherically expanding shell model

In order to constrain the size of the shell combining information from three images, we calculated a simple model of a 3-dimensional symmetric expanding shell with radius Rand expanding velocity ofv.

(Rauch+ 02)

Two geometrical equationson ⊿OAB, OBC

8 equations

9 variables:

R(v) can be obtained

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

what is the z 3 54 system 1
What is the z=3.54 system? (1)

R-v relation of the z=3.54 system in comparison with Galactic objects having an expanding shell structure.

Images must be located near the edge of the shell

Most likely!!

(Koo+ 91)

The diameter must be exactly equal to the separation A-C.

Consistent with SNR

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

what is the z 3 54 system 2
What is the z=3.54 system? (2)

Estimate of fundamental parameters of the z=3.54 system

  • Estimate mass of shell using the value of MgII column density
  • Under the assumption that the z=3.54 system is a SNR, using sedov-phase solution,
    • Age:
    • Density of interstellar medium :
    • Energy of supernova :

All of these parameters are consistent with typical values of Galactic SNRs (Koo+91), suggesting the z=3.54 system is truly a SNR.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

type of the snr at z 3 54 1
Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (1)

Abundance ratio

  • Comparison of [MgII/FeII]with low-z MgII systems(Narayanan+07)
  • [MgII/FeII] of the z=3.54 system is near to those of Fe-rich systems.

Low-z MgII systems

log[MgII/FeII]

z=3.54

system

solar

Type-Ia SN enrichment (Rigby+02)

■Confirmed

Fe-rich systems

FeIIrich

MgIIcolumn density

The z=3.54 system is a remnant produced by a type-Ia supernova

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

type of the snr at z 3 54 2
Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (2)

Gas kinematics

  • Broad FeII absorption line
    • b(FeII) = 23±6 km/s
    • b(MgII) = 9±1 km/s

Perturbed FeII-rich gasejected by SN explosion.

Conclusion:

The z=3.54 system is themost distant type-Ia SNR

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

4 summary future prospects

4. Summary & Future Prospects

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

summary
Summary
  • We obtained spatially-resolved NIR spectra of images A and B of a GLQSO, B1422+231 with Subaru IRCS.
  • We detected MgII and FeII absorption lines at z=3.54 with systematical differences between images A and B, whose separation at the redshift is just an 8 pc.
  • From expanding shell model, we concluded that the z=3.54 system is a type-Ia supernova remnant. It is the first case to identify the origin of a specific QSO absorption-line system.
  • The z=3.54 system is the most distant type-Ia supernova (remnant) ever detected (Most distant type-Ia supernova detected with light is at z=1.55: Conley+11).

See Hamano et al., (2012, ApJ, 754, 88) for the detail of this study .

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

future plan lgsao188
Future plan ~ LGSAO188 ~
  • We are advancing the NIR survey of MgII systems in the spectra of GLQSOs with Subaru IRCS/LGSAO188.
    • LGSAO188 enables us to obtain high-quality(higher spectral-, spatial-resolution, throughput) spectra of GLQSOs.
  • More GLQSOs at z>2.5 can be observedw/ higher throughput of LGSAO188for the first time.
    • Improved stellar images increase flux in a slit
    • We selected 7 brighter GLQSOs as a first sample and we are observing them.

LGSAO188 with Subaru.

(from NAOJ homepage)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

preliminary results
Preliminary results
  • 2 GLQSOs (including B1422+231) have been already observed using guaranteed time of AO188.

Spectra obtained w/o AO

(this study)

Spectra of B1422+231 obtainedw/ IRCS/AO188 (NGS & LGS)

Detected!

Profiles are slightly resolved!

R=20,000

R=10,000

As for the other observed object, we also detected some MgII systems with spatial structures.

Analysis and observation areproceeding now!

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ