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Detection of Most Distant Type- Ia Supernova Remnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B1422+231. Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo) Collaborator:

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Detection of Most Distant Type-IaSupernovaRemnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B1422+231

Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo)


N. Kobayashi (Univ. of Tokyo), S. Kondo (Kyoto Sangyo Univ.), T. Tsujimoto (NAOJ), K. Okoshi (Tokyo Univ. of Science), T. Shigeyama (Univ. of Tokyo, RESCUE)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
    • QSO absorption-line systems
    • Gravitationally lensed QSOs
  • Observation
    • Target: B1422+231
    • Observation with Subaru IRCS
  • Results & Discussion
    • MgII absorption lines at z=3.54
    • The origin: type-Ia supernova remnant ?
  • Summary & Future Prospects
    • Preliminary results of our recent observation using AO188

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

1 introduction

1. Introduction

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

qso absorption line systems
QSO absorption-line systems

“QSO absorption-line systems” are gas clouds that give rise to absorption lines in the spectrum of background quasars.

They are an only tool that can trace high-z gas clouds without bias of luminosity.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

mgii systems
MgII systems

Doublet absorption lines of MgII (λλ2796, 2803)is the best lines to trace gas clouds associated with high-z galaxies.

  • MgII systems can be detected in wide redshift range.
  • MgII systems can trace various type of gas clouds in a wide range of HI column density.
      • 1015<N(HI)<1021 (Churchill+05)

MgII systems provide us precious information on the chemical and kinematical properties of high-z gas clouds.

  • Processes of galaxy formation that stars are formed from gas clouds are expected to be traced directly. (Kacprzak+11)
  • Complementary to the surveys of high-z galaxies with deep imaging.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

difficulty of single line of sight of qso
Difficulty of “single” line of sight of QSO
  • Observables from a set of absorption lines
    • Column densities, temperature
    • Chemical abundances, metalicity
  • Non-observables because we observe them with just a single line of sight.
    • Extent of gas clouds
    • Mass, volume density

The spatial structure of gas clouds is known to be one of a key parameters in galaxy formation theories. (Mo+99, Maller+04)

How large in

size or mass ?



2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

multiple lines of sight of gravitationally lensed qsos
“Multiple” lines of sight of gravitationally lensed QSOs

Merits of gravitationally lensed QSOs (GLQSOs)

  • Split of images
    • We can observe multiple points of intervening gas clouds, which give us information of the spatial structure.
  • Magnification of images
    • We can resolve the structure of gas clouds in small scale even at high redshift.




Gas cloud


“Effective” spatial resolution reaches just1mas!

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

spatial structure of mgii systems examined with glqsos
Spatial structure of MgII systems examined with GLQSOs


Optical ←|MgII lines| →Near-infrared

Past studies

Our study



large separation


small separation

lensing galaxy


kpc-scale structure

・distribution of metal in halos/disks

・velocity field

pc-scale structure

・geometry, size

・origin (HVC,SNR,HII region)

Many studies have been done by high-dispersion observation with optical and UV spectroscopy

Rauch+ (00,01,02),Ellison+ (04)

Lopez+(97,05),Monier+ (97,09), etc..

Possible with near-infrared high-dispersion spectroscopy

Kobayashi+ (02), Hamano+ (12)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

Galactic scale structure


Molecular cloud scale structure



our purpose
Our purpose

In summary, our purpose is to investigate molecular clouds scale structure of high-z gas clouds traced by MgII systems at z>2.5 using multiple lines of sight of GLQSOs with near-infrared spectroscopy.

In this talk, I will show you a first result of our on-going study of “GLQSO absorption-line systems” with Subaru IRCS. (Hamano+12)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

2 observation

2. Observation

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ


Slitviewer image of B1422+231 obtained by Subaru IRCS w/ LGSAO188


  • z=3.628 (Rauch+99)
  • Four images and a lensing galaxy
  • Have the 2nd brightest luminosity in NIRamong QSOs ever detected
  • Known to have QSO absorption-line systems at z>2.5 (Rauch+99, 00, 01).
  • Due to the configuration, a very large magnification can be achieved at higher redshift.

This object is the most appropriate for our study.

Closest images, A and B (AB=0.5 arcsec),are observed this time.


Lensing galaxy(z = 0.339,Tonry 98)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ


Subaru telescope

  • Subaru telescope
    • 8.2 m diameter
    • Known to have excellent stellar images among ground-based telescopes→ Best to resolve close lensed images of GLQSOs( ~ 0.5 arcsec)
  • IRCS(Infrared Camera and Spectrograph)
    • We used NIR echelle mode (high spectral resolution)→MgII absorption lines at z>2.5 can be observed


2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

observation analysis
Observation & Analysis
  • Open-use observation by N.Kobayashi
    • Wavelength : 1.01-1.38 μm (zJ & J bands)
    • Date : Feb. 13, 2003 ( zJ ), Apr. 28, 2002 ( J )
    • AO36 was used only for zJ band observation.
    • Resolution : R=5,000 ( zJ ) , R=10,000 ( J )
    • Time : 9,000 sec ( zJ ) , 9,600 sec ( J )
    • Seeing : 0.3 arcsec (excellent !!)
    • Weather condition : photometric
  • Data was reduced with IRAF.


Obtained data

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

Photo of data

PSF image

3 results discussion

3. Results & Discussion

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

resolved spectra of b1422 231
Resolved spectra of B1422+231

MgII emissionof QSO itself

Spectra of images A and B of B1422+231

z=3.54 FeII lines

z=3.54 MgII doublet

Telluric absorption lines

Very small separation between images A and B :

AB = 8pc @ z=3.54 corresponds to 1 mas

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

resolved spectra of b1422 2311
Resolved spectra of B1422+231

Absorption lines at z=3.54

  • MgII absorption lines
    • Two components are detected with separation of ~ 200 km/s for both images.
    • Differences of absorption lines can be seen between A and B for both components.
  • FeII absorption lines
    • Only one component of image A is detected with large Doppler width.
  • MgI absorption lines
    • No detection



These absorption lines reflect pc-scale gaseous structure at high redshift.

Since now, we will discuss the structure and origin of the z=3.54 system.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

past study of the z 3 54 system
Past study of the z=3.54 system


  • Optical obs. w/ Keck HIRES (R~45,000)
    • Images A and C are observed( AC=22pc @ z=3.54)
    • 2 velocity components are detected with low-ionization absorption lines (CII, SiII, etc.)
  • Symmetric profiles
    • Unique feature
    • Much difference of columndensities between images A and C
    • Velocities expand symmetrically from image A to image C




By what type of gas clouds are these unique profiles produced ?

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

past study of the z 3 54 system1
Past study of the z=3.54 system

Interpretation of the z=3.54 system by Rauch+99

  • Explanation of differencesby a expanding shell.
  • Limit the expanding velocity

Outer shell produces stronger lines with smaller velocities







Inner shell produces weaker lines with larger velocities



Newly observed

Is spectrum of image B consistent with this model ?

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

o ur observation
Our observation

MgII absorption lines in the spectrum of image B is found to have intermediate column densities and velocities of those of images A and C









Our observation supports the expanding shell model proposed by Rauch+99, qualitatively.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

3d spherically expanding shell model
3D spherically expanding shell model

In order to constrain the size of the shell combining information from three images, we calculated a simple model of a 3-dimensional symmetric expanding shell with radius Rand expanding velocity ofv.

(Rauch+ 02)

Two geometrical equationson ⊿OAB, OBC

8 equations

9 variables:

R(v) can be obtained

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

what is the z 3 54 system 1
What is the z=3.54 system? (1)

R-v relation of the z=3.54 system in comparison with Galactic objects having an expanding shell structure.

Images must be located near the edge of the shell

Most likely!!

(Koo+ 91)

The diameter must be exactly equal to the separation A-C.

Consistent with SNR

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

what is the z 3 54 system 2
What is the z=3.54 system? (2)

Estimate of fundamental parameters of the z=3.54 system

  • Estimate mass of shell using the value of MgII column density
  • Under the assumption that the z=3.54 system is a SNR, using sedov-phase solution,
    • Age:
    • Density of interstellar medium :
    • Energy of supernova :

All of these parameters are consistent with typical values of Galactic SNRs (Koo+91), suggesting the z=3.54 system is truly a SNR.

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

type of the snr at z 3 54 1
Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (1)

Abundance ratio

  • Comparison of [MgII/FeII]with low-z MgII systems(Narayanan+07)
  • [MgII/FeII] of the z=3.54 system is near to those of Fe-rich systems.

Low-z MgII systems





Type-Ia SN enrichment (Rigby+02)


Fe-rich systems


MgIIcolumn density

The z=3.54 system is a remnant produced by a type-Ia supernova

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

type of the snr at z 3 54 2
Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (2)

Gas kinematics

  • Broad FeII absorption line
    • b(FeII) = 23±6 km/s
    • b(MgII) = 9±1 km/s

Perturbed FeII-rich gasejected by SN explosion.


The z=3.54 system is themost distant type-Ia SNR

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

4 summary future prospects

4. Summary & Future Prospects

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  • We obtained spatially-resolved NIR spectra of images A and B of a GLQSO, B1422+231 with Subaru IRCS.
  • We detected MgII and FeII absorption lines at z=3.54 with systematical differences between images A and B, whose separation at the redshift is just an 8 pc.
  • From expanding shell model, we concluded that the z=3.54 system is a type-Ia supernova remnant. It is the first case to identify the origin of a specific QSO absorption-line system.
  • The z=3.54 system is the most distant type-Ia supernova (remnant) ever detected (Most distant type-Ia supernova detected with light is at z=1.55: Conley+11).

See Hamano et al., (2012, ApJ, 754, 88) for the detail of this study .

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

future plan lgsao188
Future plan ~ LGSAO188 ~
  • We are advancing the NIR survey of MgII systems in the spectra of GLQSOs with Subaru IRCS/LGSAO188.
    • LGSAO188 enables us to obtain high-quality(higher spectral-, spatial-resolution, throughput) spectra of GLQSOs.
  • More GLQSOs at z>2.5 can be observedw/ higher throughput of LGSAO188for the first time.
    • Improved stellar images increase flux in a slit
    • We selected 7 brighter GLQSOs as a first sample and we are observing them.

LGSAO188 with Subaru.

(from NAOJ homepage)

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

preliminary results
Preliminary results
  • 2 GLQSOs (including B1422+231) have been already observed using guaranteed time of AO188.

Spectra obtained w/o AO

(this study)

Spectra of B1422+231 obtainedw/ IRCS/AO188 (NGS & LGS)


Profiles are slightly resolved!



As for the other observed object, we also detected some MgII systems with spatial structures.

Analysis and observation areproceeding now!

2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ