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Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo) Collaborator: PowerPoint Presentation
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Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo) Collaborator:

Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo) Collaborator:

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Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo) Collaborator:

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  1. Detection of Most Distant Type-IaSupernovaRemnant Shell as Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Gravitationally Lensed QSO B1422+231 Satoshi Hamano (University of Tokyo) Collaborator: N. Kobayashi (Univ. of Tokyo), S. Kondo (Kyoto Sangyo Univ.), T. Tsujimoto (NAOJ), K. Okoshi (Tokyo Univ. of Science), T. Shigeyama (Univ. of Tokyo, RESCUE) 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  2. Table of Contents • Introduction • QSO absorption-line systems • Gravitationally lensed QSOs • Observation • Target: B1422+231 • Observation with Subaru IRCS • Results & Discussion • MgII absorption lines at z=3.54 • The origin: type-Ia supernova remnant ? • Summary & Future Prospects • Preliminary results of our recent observation using AO188 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  3. 1. Introduction 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  4. QSO absorption-line systems “QSO absorption-line systems” are gas clouds that give rise to absorption lines in the spectrum of background quasars. They are an only tool that can trace high-z gas clouds without bias of luminosity. 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  5. MgII systems Doublet absorption lines of MgII (λλ2796, 2803)is the best lines to trace gas clouds associated with high-z galaxies. • MgII systems can be detected in wide redshift range. • MgII systems can trace various type of gas clouds in a wide range of HI column density. • 1015<N(HI)<1021 (Churchill+05) MgII systems provide us precious information on the chemical and kinematical properties of high-z gas clouds. • Processes of galaxy formation that stars are formed from gas clouds are expected to be traced directly. (Kacprzak+11) • Complementary to the surveys of high-z galaxies with deep imaging. 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  6. Difficulty of “single” line of sight of QSO • Observables from a set of absorption lines • Column densities, temperature • Chemical abundances, metalicity • Non-observables because we observe them with just a single line of sight. • Extent of gas clouds • Mass, volume density The spatial structure of gas clouds is known to be one of a key parameters in galaxy formation theories. (Mo+99, Maller+04) How large in size or mass ? ? Observer QSO 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  7. “Multiple” lines of sight of gravitationally lensed QSOs Merits of gravitationally lensed QSOs (GLQSOs) • Split of images • We can observe multiple points of intervening gas clouds, which give us information of the spatial structure. • Magnification of images • We can resolve the structure of gas clouds in small scale even at high redshift. QSO Lensing galaxy Gas cloud observer “Effective” spatial resolution reaches just1mas! 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  8. Spatial structure of MgII systems examined with GLQSOs z=2.5 Optical ←|MgII lines| →Near-infrared Past studies Our study lower-z higher-z large separation observer small separation lensing galaxy QSO kpc-scale structure ・distribution of metal in halos/disks ・velocity field pc-scale structure ・geometry, size ・origin (HVC,SNR,HII region) Many studies have been done by high-dispersion observation with optical and UV spectroscopy Rauch+ (00,01,02),Ellison+ (04) Lopez+(97,05),Monier+ (97,09), etc.. Possible with near-infrared high-dispersion spectroscopy Kobayashi+ (02), Hamano+ (12) 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ Galactic scale structure z~1 Molecular cloud scale structure MgII CIV

  9. Our purpose In summary, our purpose is to investigate molecular clouds scale structure of high-z gas clouds traced by MgII systems at z>2.5 using multiple lines of sight of GLQSOs with near-infrared spectroscopy. In this talk, I will show you a first result of our on-going study of “GLQSO absorption-line systems” with Subaru IRCS. (Hamano+12) 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  10. 2. Observation 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  11. Target Slitviewer image of B1422+231 obtained by Subaru IRCS w/ LGSAO188 B1422+231 • z=3.628 (Rauch+99) • Four images and a lensing galaxy • Have the 2nd brightest luminosity in NIRamong QSOs ever detected • Known to have QSO absorption-line systems at z>2.5 (Rauch+99, 00, 01). • Due to the configuration, a very large magnification can be achieved at higher redshift. This object is the most appropriate for our study. Closest images, A and B (AB=0.5 arcsec),are observed this time. 0”.5 Lensing galaxy(z = 0.339,Tonry 98) 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  12. Subaru telescope Telescope • Subaru telescope • 8.2 m diameter • Known to have excellent stellar images among ground-based telescopes→ Best to resolve close lensed images of GLQSOs( ~ 0.5 arcsec) • IRCS(Infrared Camera and Spectrograph) • We used NIR echelle mode (high spectral resolution)→MgII absorption lines at z>2.5 can be observed IRCS 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  13. Observation & Analysis • Open-use observation by N.Kobayashi • Wavelength : 1.01-1.38 μm (zJ & J bands) • Date : Feb. 13, 2003 ( zJ ), Apr. 28, 2002 ( J ) • AO36 was used only for zJ band observation. • Resolution : R=5,000 ( zJ ) , R=10,000 ( J ) • Time : 9,000 sec ( zJ ) , 9,600 sec ( J ) • Seeing : 0.3 arcsec (excellent !!) • Weather condition : photometric • Data was reduced with IRAF. 0”.5 Obtained data 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ Photo of data PSF image

  14. 3. Results & Discussion 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  15. Resolved spectra of B1422+231 MgII emissionof QSO itself Spectra of images A and B of B1422+231 z=3.54 FeII lines z=3.54 MgII doublet Telluric absorption lines Very small separation between images A and B : AB = 8pc @ z=3.54 corresponds to 1 mas 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  16. Resolved spectra of B1422+231 Absorption lines at z=3.54 • MgII absorption lines • Two components are detected with separation of ~ 200 km/s for both images. • Differences of absorption lines can be seen between A and B for both components. • FeII absorption lines • Only one component of image A is detected with large Doppler width. • MgI absorption lines • No detection B A These absorption lines reflect pc-scale gaseous structure at high redshift. Since now, we will discuss the structure and origin of the z=3.54 system. 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  17. Past study of the z=3.54 system Rauch+99 • Optical obs. w/ Keck HIRES (R~45,000) • Images A and C are observed( AC=22pc @ z=3.54) • 2 velocity components are detected with low-ionization absorption lines (CII, SiII, etc.) • Symmetric profiles • Unique feature • Much difference of columndensities between images A and C • Velocities expand symmetrically from image A to image C C A CII By what type of gas clouds are these unique profiles produced ? 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  18. Past study of the z=3.54 system Interpretation of the z=3.54 system by Rauch+99 • Explanation of differencesby a expanding shell. • Limit the expanding velocity Outer shell produces stronger lines with smaller velocities C A QSO B observer A Inner shell produces weaker lines with larger velocities CII C Newly observed Is spectrum of image B consistent with this model ? 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  19. Our observation MgII absorption lines in the spectrum of image B is found to have intermediate column densities and velocities of those of images A and C A C B A,B:MgII C:CII C A CII Our observation supports the expanding shell model proposed by Rauch+99, qualitatively. 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  20. 3D spherically expanding shell model In order to constrain the size of the shell combining information from three images, we calculated a simple model of a 3-dimensional symmetric expanding shell with radius Rand expanding velocity ofv. (Rauch+ 02) Two geometrical equationson ⊿OAB, OBC 8 equations 9 variables: R(v) can be obtained 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  21. What is the z=3.54 system? (1) R-v relation of the z=3.54 system in comparison with Galactic objects having an expanding shell structure. Images must be located near the edge of the shell Most likely!! (Koo+ 91) The diameter must be exactly equal to the separation A-C. Consistent with SNR 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  22. What is the z=3.54 system? (2) Estimate of fundamental parameters of the z=3.54 system • Estimate mass of shell using the value of MgII column density • Under the assumption that the z=3.54 system is a SNR, using sedov-phase solution, • Age: • Density of interstellar medium : • Energy of supernova : All of these parameters are consistent with typical values of Galactic SNRs (Koo+91), suggesting the z=3.54 system is truly a SNR. 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  23. Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (1) Abundance ratio • Comparison of [MgII/FeII]with low-z MgII systems(Narayanan+07) • [MgII/FeII] of the z=3.54 system is near to those of Fe-rich systems. Low-z MgII systems log[MgII/FeII] z=3.54 system solar Type-Ia SN enrichment (Rigby+02) ■Confirmed Fe-rich systems FeIIrich MgIIcolumn density The z=3.54 system is a remnant produced by a type-Ia supernova 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  24. Type of the SNR at z=3.54 (2) Gas kinematics • Broad FeII absorption line • b(FeII) = 23±6 km/s • b(MgII) = 9±1 km/s Perturbed FeII-rich gasejected by SN explosion. Conclusion: The z=3.54 system is themost distant type-Ia SNR 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  25. 4. Summary & Future Prospects 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  26. Summary • We obtained spatially-resolved NIR spectra of images A and B of a GLQSO, B1422+231 with Subaru IRCS. • We detected MgII and FeII absorption lines at z=3.54 with systematical differences between images A and B, whose separation at the redshift is just an 8 pc. • From expanding shell model, we concluded that the z=3.54 system is a type-Ia supernova remnant. It is the first case to identify the origin of a specific QSO absorption-line system. • The z=3.54 system is the most distant type-Ia supernova (remnant) ever detected (Most distant type-Ia supernova detected with light is at z=1.55: Conley+11). See Hamano et al., (2012, ApJ, 754, 88) for the detail of this study . 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  27. Future plan ~ LGSAO188 ~ • We are advancing the NIR survey of MgII systems in the spectra of GLQSOs with Subaru IRCS/LGSAO188. • LGSAO188 enables us to obtain high-quality(higher spectral-, spatial-resolution, throughput) spectra of GLQSOs. • More GLQSOs at z>2.5 can be observedw/ higher throughput of LGSAO188for the first time. • Improved stellar images increase flux in a slit • We selected 7 brighter GLQSOs as a first sample and we are observing them. LGSAO188 with Subaru. (from NAOJ homepage) 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ

  28. Preliminary results • 2 GLQSOs (including B1422+231) have been already observed using guaranteed time of AO188. Spectra obtained w/o AO (this study) Spectra of B1422+231 obtainedw/ IRCS/AO188 (NGS & LGS) Detected! Profiles are slightly resolved! R=20,000 R=10,000 As for the other observed object, we also detected some MgII systems with spatial structures. Analysis and observation areproceeding now! 2013.01.15-17 Subaru UM @ NAOJ