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Introduction. Safety of High Hazard Occupations. Safe 4900 D. Barber Summer 2008. Safety 4900. Introductions Background What is this course?. Introduction. Name Where you work Background Interest. Background. Safety Aspects of High Risk Activities

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Safety of High Hazard Occupations

Safe 4900 D. Barber Summer 2008

safety 4900
Safety 4900
  • Introductions
  • Background
  • What is this course?
  • Name
  • Where you work
  • Background
  • Interest
  • Safety Aspects of High Risk Activities
  • What is a belief?
  • Personality and Safety
  • Types of High Risk Activities
course expectations
Course Expectations
  • Participate
  • Treat each other with respect
  • Class Work on time
  • Draft work returned with comments
  • Complete work, don’t copy

Safety 4900


Hype or Hazard?

Source: Synergist Magazine, April 2008

  • 2 Papers
  • In-Class Exercises
  • Safety Behavior Model (due on 6 July 08)
  • Final on content.
  • 1 – High Risk Technology, hazards and analysis. Length: 5-7 pages.
  • 2 – New Hazards – Regulations: adequate? inadequate. 5-7 pages
example topics
Example Topics
  • Nanotechnology
  • Combustible dust
  • OSHA and Airlines
  • Teens and Summer Jobs
  • New Confined Space requirements
behavior model
Behavior Model

Behavior Model, Your own design, explain, show application and usage. 5-7 pages

the obvious
The Obvious?

High Risk Jobs…


Fatality Rate:

    • 100 Per year


course textbook
Course Textbook:
  • Human Safety and
  • Risk Management 2nd ED.
    • Dr. Ian Glendon
    • CRC Press

Safety 4900

  • Chapter 1, 2, 6, 8, 9
    • Please read these chapters
  • Public Risk vrs Personal Risk
  • Actual Risk and residual risk
behaviors and risk
Behaviors and Risk
  • Is there a link?
psychology s role in safety
Psychology’s Role in Safety
  • Understanding the behaviors
  • Modeling the behaviors
  • Assignments?
  • Due Dates?
  • Tests
  • Class Work
basis for risk
Basis For Risk…
  • Rousseau: 1755
    • Lisbon Earthquake

>100,000 deaths

20,000 houses built in known

Seismic location

  • They recognized the risk of building the homes.

Safety 4900

Unit 1

high reliability organization
High Reliability Organization
  • Organizations with fewer than normal accidents (organizations with fewer accidents)
  • Why does this happen?
  • Charles Perrow, Normal Accidents
  • Researchers have found that successful organizations in high-risk industries continually reinvent themselves
  • There are 5 characteristics of High Reliability Organizations:
    • Preoccupation with failure
    • Reluctance to simplify interpretations
    • Sensitivity to operations
    • Commitment to resilience
    • Deference to expertise
psychology s role
Psychology’s Role
  • Worker Behavior
    • Criticism: Overly focused on blame
    • Model Accuracy
    • Training Effectiveness
  • Management Behavior?

Safe 4900

Unit 1

influencing management
Influencing Management
  • Safety Culture
  • Safety Climate

Safety 4900

Unit 1

changing world of work
Changing world of Work
  • Less Social
  • Fragmentation of Work
  • Isolation of Workers
  • Less worker participation
  • Reduced Union representatives
  • Greater Management control

Safety 4900 Unit 1

  • Greater Stress on Workers
  • More Accidents/Incidents

Safety 4900 Unit 1

more regulations
More Regulations
  • New standard on Confined Spaces
  • New Standard on Combustible Gas
  • New Standard on Electrical Safety
  • Pressure on Ergo Standard
more oversight
More Oversight
  • Airline Inspections by OSHA
  • Sunoco Inc. receives $330,000 in proposed penalties after U.S. Labor Department's OSHA conducts safety inspection Agency finds 27 serious and 3 willful violations during its inspection.
  • U.S. Labor Department's OSHA proposes more than $77,000 in fines against Sodexho Inc. for safety and health hazards at Buffalo, N.Y., industrial laundry
  • Conklin, N.Y., manufacturer faces additional $75,000 in fines from U.S. Labor Department's OSHA for failing to correct machine guarding hazards
  • Candidates:
    • Press for more OSHA regulation of business
      • Ergo Standards
      • Health Screenings
      • Ban Asbestos
      • Car safety Act
      • Agreements – Canada/Mexico
      • Teen Driver laws
      • Nuclear Weapons worker
      • Chemical Plans controlled by Fed
      • Consumer products
      • Mine improvement Act
      • Transportation Safety
      • Merchant Marine Acts
      • Highway Safety changes (commerce)
      • Rail Security Act

Sen. Clinton

Sen. Obama

Sen. McCain

technical issues
Technical Issues
  • Design work Environments
    • Engender Safety
    • Human Factors
    • Risk Assessments
  • More with less
  • Work Smarter
resistance to change
Resistance to Change…
  • Do People resist change?
  • Why?
resistance to change2
Resistance to Change…

-Gleicher Formula for Change

Organizational Development:

Strategies and Models

D x V x F > R

Three factors must be present for meaningful organizational change to take place. These factors are:D = Dissatisfaction with how things are now;V = Vision of what is possible;F = First, concrete steps that can be taken towards the vision.

If the product of these three factors is greater thanR = Resistance, then change is possible. Because of the multiplication of D, V and F, if any one is absent or low, then the product will be low and therefore not capable of overcoming the resistance.

resistant to change
Resistant to Change
  • Reasons Why
    • Fear?
    • Territory
    • Pride
  • Other Focuses?
    • Profit
    • Research

D x V x F > C(e+p)

E = economics

P = psychological

other models
Other Models

ADKAR Model include:

Awareness – of why the change is needed

Desire – to support and participate in the change

Knowledge – of how to change

Ability – to implement new skills and behaviors

Reinforcement – to sustain the change

  • Basis?
  • Reasons?
  • Traditions?
  • Definition:
    • Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true. n.
  • Different from Belief?

Knowledge is defined (Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education

group exercise
Group Exercise
  • Handout – divide into groups of three
  • Review the document, decide answers and record them
  • Choose a representative
  • To reward Safety Behavior
  • Basis?
  • When?
  • To Whom?
  • Plaques
  • Memos
  • Pins
  • Stickers
  • Based on $ rewards
  • Can backfire on Safety
  • Based on Injury/illness stats alone
  • About the Records
performance indicators
Performance Indicators


  • What is a Performance Indicator?
    • Leading/Lagging Indicators
  • What do they Mean?
  • How are they used?
  • How often should they be Checked?
  • Where do I find them?
  • What PI’s should we use?
what are pi s
What are PI’s?
  • Performance Indicators are simply indicators of the quality of management and engineering systems.
  • Like a fever, they may indicate a negative condition of a system BUT not the real problem.
performance measures examples
Performance MeasuresExamples
  • Spills, Leaks, Releases
  • Training Completed
  • Personnel Fit-tested
  • Earplugs issues
  • RIRs
  • Procedures not followed
performance measures basis
Performance MeasuresBasis:

One Major




50 Minor Events


500 Incidents

performance indicators leading lagging
Performance Indicators Leading/Lagging
  • Leading Indicator is before event occurs
  • Lagging Indicator is after event/incident
pi s what do they mean
PI’sWhat do they Mean?
  • System Failures
  • Precursors to a larger event
  • Institutional Conditions
  • Management Systems
pi s how are they used
PI’sHow are they used?
  • Measures of Local Performance
  • Responsiveness of Authority
  • Provide Managers with Pre-event information
  • Point to Systematic/Institutional Failures
pi usage
PI Usage
  • Establish Upper/Lower Control Limits for each indicator
    • 1 Standard Deviation 1 
  • Use 3 year rolling Average
  • Evaluate if exceeds
  • Report on quarterly
pi usage1
PI Usage
  • PI May Point to root-causes
    • Failure to use procedure
    • Failure to follow procedure
pi s how often
PI’s How Often?
  • Decided by ESH Staff
  • Normally, monthly, quarterly
    • Spot checks on performance are useful
      • Why?
      • Events reported by FR’s
      • Critiques
pi s where do i find them
PI’sWhere do I find them?
  • ORPS
  • RIRs
  • FR’s
  • OIMS
pi s where are they found
PI’sWhere are they Found?
  • Contractor Self-Assessments
  • FR Walkdowns
  • ESH Reports
performance indicators why are they important
Performance Indicators Why are they Important?
  • Measures of Local Performance
  • Responsiveness of Authority
  • Provide Managers with Pre-event information
  • Point to Systematic/Institutional Failures
the numbers say it all
The Numbers Say it All!


Parker Drilling


Accident Severity Index

same standard
Same Standard?
  • Everyone compared to same
    • Adjusted for work hours
    • Adjusted for site?
    • Adjusted for Severity?

Accident Severity Index

2006 stats
2006 Stats
  • Fatality rates were lower for industries and government in 2006*

* Safety + Health, National Safety Council, Jan 2008

Accident Severity Index

top five occupations
Top Five Occupations*
  • Drivers/sales and truck drivers
  • Farmers and Ranchers
  • Agricultural Workers
  • Aircraft pilots and flight engineers
  • Roofers

* NSC, Safety+Health, Jan 08

Accident Severity Index

work comp claims
Work Comp Claims
  • $55.3 Billion in 2005

Accident Severity Index

accidents incidents
  • All the same?

Accident Severity Index

the indicators
The Indicators
  • Total Reportable Cases

Accident Severity Index

bls data
BLS Data
  • Construction (2006)
    • 218 fatalities
  • Heavy Construction
    • 224 fatalities
  • Specialtry Trade
    • 721

Accident Severity Index


TRC Rates



Accident Severity Index


Days Away Restricted

Accident Severity Index

setting goals
Setting Goals…
  • All Organizations will reach TRC of 1.0!
  • All Organizations will reach DART of 0.6!

Self-fulling Prophesy?

Accident Severity Index

management may say
Management May Say…
  • Drive Down the Numbers
    • What does that mean?
    • What’s contributing to numbers?

Accident Severity Index


Reducing All Incidents to Zero

Safety is our highest priority. Our workforce Days Away From Work Rate fell by 25 percent from 2005, our fifth consecutive year of improvement. While the workforce Total Recordable Incident Rate was up 2 percent from the previous year, we continue to move toward world-class performance. We are committed to reducing fatalities, and all incidents, to zero

Parker Co.

Accident Severity Index

why did they fall
Why did they fall?
  • Luck?
  • Reduced Hours
  • Reduced Work
  • Other subs not counted?
  • Safer Work

Accident Severity Index

organizational responses
Organizational Responses…
  • Temptation not to report – where’s the goal?
  • Place workers back to work to avoid reporting
  • More arguments on reportability

Accident Severity Index

accident severity index
Accident Severity Index
  • No practice rounds
  • The score card stays as is.

No good understanding of

Significant figures:

1.91? 2.03?

Accident Severity Index

chasing numbers
Chasing Numbers






Accident Severity Index

frequency factor
Frequency Factor
  • One Method: (DOT)
  • 2(Ln(#Accident)) = Frequency factor

Accident Severity Index

accident severity
Accident Severity
  • All Accidents the same?

Accident Severity Index

the accident severity index
The Accident Severity Index
  • Bin Accidents by Type
    • Fatality
    • Fall

Accident Severity Index

accident severity index1
Accident Severity Index
  • Assign the Risk Factor for each

Accident Severity Index

accident severity1
Accident Severity
  • Other areas measure it differently…

Accident Severity Index

asi helps focus
ASI Helps Focus
  • Specific rather than general
  • Where most severe accidents are occurring
  • Focus on causes

Accident Severity Index

new method
New Method
  • Uses Mil Std 882D like method.
    • Table A-1, Assigns severity categories

Accident Severity Index

severity index
Severity Index

Accident Severity Index

signs we pay attention to
Signs We Pay Attention To…

Accident Severity Index

accident severity table

Type Incident


Slip, Trip




Ergo injury








Accident Severity Table

Accident Severity Index


Examine Type of Incidents

Bin them by kind:

3 Fractures , 5 points each.

5 X 3 = 15 points

Work to reduce these


Accident Severity Index

set goals
Set Goals
  • Reduce Type 3 Events by Certain Percentage
  • Reduce accident severity score by 500 points

Accident Severity Index

focuses efforts
Focuses Efforts
  • Most Severe events
  • Place abatement where it will reduce these
  • Management attention

Accident Severity Index

belief and safety
Belief and Safety
  • Nearly 1 in 3 Americans believe nothing can be done to prevent accidental injuries

Accident Severity Index

safety professionals
Safety Professionals
  • Up to us to change that…

Accident Severity Index