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Nutrition. Nutrition and Exercise. Personal fitness requires positive lifestyle choices including physical activity and eating healthy. “If you don’t take care of your body, where are you going to live?”  ~Unknown. Nutrition and Nutrients .

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nutrition and exercise
Nutrition and Exercise

Personal fitness requires positive lifestyle choices including physical activity and eating healthy.

“If you don’t take care of your body, where are you going to live?”  ~Unknown

nutrition and nutrients
Nutrition and Nutrients

Nutrition – The study of food and how your body uses the substances in food.

Nutrients – Substances in food that your body needs for energy, proper growth, body maintenance, and functioning.


Term to Know


The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram (about a quart) of water 1 degree Celsius.


Your body’s energy needs are measured in calories.

nutrients for energy
Nutrients for Energy

Carbohydrates - the body’s chief source of energy.

Proteins - serve as a secondary source of energy.

Fats - or lipids, are another

type of nutrient that provide energy.


Carbohydrates are classified as:

  • Simple carbohydrates
    • These are sugars found in fruits, candy, cookies and soda.
    • They provide quick energy.
  • Complex carbohydrates
    • These are starches found in vegetables like corn and potatoes, as well as breads, cereals, pastas, rice, and dry beans.
    • They provide sustained energy.

Term to Know

Adipose tissue

Body fat.


If a person takes in more carbohydrates than their body can use for energy or store as glycogen, the excess glucose is stored as adipose tissue.

carbohydrates and athletes
Carbohydrates and Athletes
  • Carbohydrates fuel high school athletes during both school hours and difficult practice sessions.
  • Complex carbohydrates give longer lasting energy, but simple carbohydrates give high school endurance athletes a boost during long events or practices.
  • Young athletes should eat healthy oats or cereals for breakfast, sandwiches on whole-wheat bread rather than white bread or buns, raw fruits and vegetables and whole-wheat crackers to ensure adequate carbohydrate intake.

Protein is a component of bones, connective tissue, skin, blood, and vital organs.

  • Your body needs protein to:
  • grow, repair, and maintain itself
  • help fight disease
  • supply energy

Term to Know

Amino acids

The building blocks of proteins.


There are 22 different amino acids.

Your body can manufacture all but nine. These are called essentialamino acids because you must get them from the foods you eat.


There are two types of proteins found in foods:

  • Complete proteins contain all nine essential amino acids.
    • Animal products such as meats and dairy products are sources of complete proteins.
  • Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the essential amino acids.
    • With the exception of soybeans, plant foods are incomplete proteins.

Term to Know


Individuals who eliminate meat, fish, and poultry from their eating plans.


Vegetarians and Vegans must eat a variety of plant-based foods and dairy products to ensure an adequate intake of complete proteins.


are vegetarians who also eliminate eggs and dairy products from their diets.

protein and athletes
Protein and Athletes
  • High school athletes do not need a high-protein diet but do need high-quality protein.
  • Athletes need protein primarily to repair and rebuild muscle that is broken down during exercise and to help optimizes carbohydrate storage in the form of glycogen.
  • Protein plays a vital role in muscle development and health, tissue repair, wound healing and hormone regulation.
  • Avoid high-fat protein found in fried fast food burgers and instead focus on grilled lean beef or chicken, eggs, seafood, seeds, and nuts and nut butters.

Fats are good for you because…

Fats supply twice the energy of a gram of carbohydrate or protein.

Fats transport and absorb vitamins A, D, E, and K.

Fats help regulate the hormone testosterone, which is used to build body tissue.

Fats enhance the flavor and texture of foods

Fats help satisfy huger because they take longer to digest.


Fats are not good for you because…

Eating too many fats can clog arteries and lead to heart disease.

Eating too many fats can lead to certain types of cancer.

Fat that is not used as energy is stored as adipose tissue.

Excess body fat can lead to unhealthful weight gain and obesity.

Excess fat can lead to type 2 diabetes.

fats and athletes
Fats and Athletes
  • Teen athletes burn calories while working out or competing and need healthy fats to help them sustain themselves during athletic events.
  • Unhealthy fats such as the saturated fats found in many fried or processed foods may eventually contribute to a teen's developing heart disease as he/she ages.
  • Better fat choices include unsaturated fats found in canola or olive oil, avocados, nuts, peanut butter and cold water fish such as herring, salmon and cod.

Term to Know


Micronutrients that help control body processes and help your body release energy to do work.


Because vitamins and minerals are nutrients needed in tiny amounts, they are known as micronutrients.

Vitamins don’t contain calories, so they don’t provide energy.

  • Teenagers have nutritional needs that are linked to the changes that their bodies experience during the adolescent years.
  • Deficiencies in vitamin health in the teen years can lead to lasting problems with physical growth, bones and the skin, as well as temporary issues with mood, concentration and energy.
  • By attending to the essential vitamin needs for teens, it is possible to have better health outcomes

Term to Know


Substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and for regulating many vital body processes.


Minerals such as calcium, potassium, sodium, and iron, help your body function.

Like vitamins, minerals do not contain calories or supply your body with energy.


Minerals help your body function.

  • Calcium helps build and maintain strong bones.
  • Potassium aids in normal muscle contractions and in the sending of nerve impulses that control the movement of muscles.
  • Sodium helps maintain the fluid balance inside and outside cells and helps nerve impulse transmission.
  • Iron is part of the hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carry oxygen from the lungs to all cells.

Drinking water is essential for these reasons:

Digestion And Transport - Water plays an essential role in digestion and the transportation of nutrients through your body.

Temperature Control - Water is a good medium for regulating temperature.

Structure - provides structure that protects vital organs.

Dehydration - If you go too long without adequate hydration, you will soon suffer loss of motor function and cognitive skills.

sugary drinks
Sugary Drinks
  • The Average teen should intake around 25 grams of sugar per day.
  • A 8 oz Minute Maid Orange Juice has 24 grams.
  • An 8 oz Red Bull has 27 grams.
  • A 12 oz Coka Cola has 39 grams.
  • A 16 oz Gatorade has 24 grams.
  • A 16 oz Rockstar has 62 grams.
  • A 16 oz Frappuccino has 47 grams.
  • A 20 oz Vitamin Water has 33 grams.
  • A 24 oz Can of Arizona Tea has 72 grams.
  • A Medium McDonald Shake has 111 grams.

Excess sugar that is not needed is stored as body fat.

nutrition facts

Term to Know

Nutrition Facts panel

Provides a thumbnail analysis of a food’s calories and nutrient content for one serving.

Nutrition Facts

By reading the Nutrition Facts panel, you can compare different food products, make wise choices, and get an idea of what and how much you are consuming.

developing healthy eating habits
Developing Healthy Eating Habits

Breakfast is important for these reasons:

Breakfast replenishes your body’s energy supply.

Breakfast improves your physical and mental performance.

Breakfast is important for maintaining a healthy weight.

Breakfast may help you avoid overeating later in the day.