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the brain. Honors Anatomy & Physiology f or copying. Brain: unremarkable appearance ~ 3 lbs 4 major regions. 1. Cerebral Hemisphere. right & left connected by large fiber tract: corpus callosum cover most of other 3 parts

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the brain

the brain

Honors Anatomy & Physiology

for copying

1 cerebral hemisphere
1. Cerebral Hemisphere
  • right & left connected by large fiber tract: corpus callosum
  • cover most of other 3 parts
  • surface: elevated ridges = gyriseparated by shallow grooves = sulci
  • Fissures deeper grooves separate regions of brain
longitudinal fissure
Longitudinal Fissure
  • separates cerebral hemispheres
  • other fissures separate brain into lobes
ventricles of the brain
Ventricles of the Brain
  • spaces in brain filled with CSF
  • connected to subarachnoid space (around brain & spinal cord) and central canal of spinal cord
somatic sensory area
Somatic Sensory Area
  • parietal lobe posterior to central sulcus
  • receives impulses from sensory receptors (not special senses), interprets them
    • pain recognition
    • temperature
    • light touch
primary motor area
Primary Motor Area
  • anterior to central sulcus in frontal lobe
  • major voluntary motor tract
occipital lobe
Occipital Lobe
  • visual area
temporal lobe
Temporal Lobe
  • auditory & olfactory areas
frontal lobe
Frontal Lobe
  • Brocca’s Area: ability to speak
    • @ base of precentralgyrus (usually only on left side)
    • injury  inability to correctly vocalize words
lobe functions
Lobe Functions
  • anterior frontal lobe: higher intellectual reasoning
  • complex memories: frontal/ temporal lobe
  • all facets of speech: occipital/temporal/parietal lobes
basal nuclei
Basal Nuclei
  • gray matter in brain that is NOT in cerebral cortex
  • functions: help regulate voluntary motor activity by modifying instructions sent to skeletal muscle by primary motor cortex
diencephalon
Diencephalon
  • sits atop brain stem
  • enclosed by cerebral hemispheres
  • major parts:
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Limbic system
    • Epithalamus
thalamus
Thalamus
  • relay station for sensory impulses passing thru to sensory cortex
hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
  • ANS center
  • role in:
    • temperature control
    • water balance
    • metabolism
limbic system
Limbic System
  • regulates autonomic & endocrine functions in response to emotional stimuli (“reacting” brain vs. cerebral cortex being “thinking” brain)
    • set level of arousal
    • motivation
    • reinforcing behaviors
    • rage, love, memory, empathy
brain stem
Brain Stem
  • ~size of thumb in diameter & ~ 3 inches long
  • 3 parts:
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
choroid plexus
Choroid Plexus
  • knots of capillaries w/in each ventricle
  • produce & secrete CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)
midbrain
Midbrain
  • smallest, uppermost part of brain stem
  • cerebral aquaduct: tiny canal that runs thru midbrain connecting 3rd & 4th ventricles
  • contains reflex centers for vision, hearing
slide23
Pons
  • “bridge”
  • rounded structure that protrudes below midbrain
  • contains apneustic (produces deep, prolonged inspirations) & pneumotatic center (inhibits inspiration)
medulla oblongata
Medulla Oblongata
  • most inferior part of brain stem
  • inferior border merges into spinal cord
  • centers: heart rate, BP, breathing, swallowing, vomiting
cerebellum
Cerebellum
  • large, cauliflower-like
  • projects dorsally from under occipital lobe
  • 2 hemispheres
  • convoluted surface
  • provides precise timing for skeletal muscle activity
  • Controls balance & equilibrium
traumatic brain injuries
Traumatic Brain Injuries
  • Head injuries are leading cause of accidental death in USA.
  • Concussion: dizziness, “see stars”, briefly lose consciousness; No permanent brain damage
  • Contusion: result of marked tissue damage. Cerebrum: may maintain consciousness Brainstem: coma
  • Cerebral Edema: swelling of brain due to inflammatory response to injury/ initially conscious neuro signs deteriorate (think edema or hemorrhage)
cerebrovascular accident cva
Cerebrovascular Accident(CVA)
  • stroke
  • 3rd leading cause of death in USA
  • occur when blood circulation to brain is interrupted
    • vessel could be blocked (temporary or permanent) or hemorrhaging
slide28
CVA
  • characterized by:
    • abrupt onset of persisting neurological symptoms that arise from destruction of brain tissue

common causes:

    • intracerebral hemorrhage
    • emboli
    • atherosclerosis of cerebral arteries
cva risk factors
CVA Risk Factors

hypertension

hypercholesterolnemia

heart disease

narrowed carotid arteries

hx of TIAs (transient ischemic attacks)

diabetes

smoking

obesity

excessive alcohol intake

cva treatments
CVA Treatments
  • Thrombolytic:
    • clot-dissolving drug: tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) greatly improved prognosis for CVA
    • aspirin (makes plts slippery  fewer clots)
    • blood thinners
sequelae of cva
Sequelae of CVA
  • Aphasia: from damage to left side cerebrum where language centers are
  • Motor Aphasia:
    • damage to Broca’s area
    • loss of ability to speak
  • Sensory Aphasia:
    • loss of ability to understand written or spoken word
slide32
TIA
  • Transient Ischemic Attack
  • “mini-stroke”
  • due to temporary restriction of blood flow
  • symptoms last 5 – 50 minutes
  • “red flags” that warn impending & more serious CVAs
alzheimer disease ad
Alzheimer Disease (AD)
  • most common type of dementia
  • >10% population > age 65
  • 4th leading cause of death in US
  • characterized by progressive loss of reasoning & ability to care for oneself
  • cause of most cases unknown but…
    • genetic factors
    • environmental or lifestyle factors
    • normal aging process