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the brain. Honors Anatomy & Physiology f or copying. Brain: unremarkable appearance ~ 3 lbs 4 major regions. 1. Cerebral Hemisphere. right & left connected by large fiber tract: corpus callosum cover most of other 3 parts

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the brain

the brain

Honors Anatomy & Physiology

for copying

1 cerebral hemisphere
1. Cerebral Hemisphere
  • right & left connected by large fiber tract: corpus callosum
  • cover most of other 3 parts
  • surface: elevated ridges = gyriseparated by shallow grooves = sulci
  • Fissures deeper grooves separate regions of brain
longitudinal fissure
Longitudinal Fissure
  • separates cerebral hemispheres
  • other fissures separate brain into lobes
ventricles of the brain
Ventricles of the Brain
  • spaces in brain filled with CSF
  • connected to subarachnoid space (around brain & spinal cord) and central canal of spinal cord
somatic sensory area
Somatic Sensory Area
  • parietal lobe posterior to central sulcus
  • receives impulses from sensory receptors (not special senses), interprets them
    • pain recognition
    • temperature
    • light touch
primary motor area
Primary Motor Area
  • anterior to central sulcus in frontal lobe
  • major voluntary motor tract
occipital lobe
Occipital Lobe
  • visual area
temporal lobe
Temporal Lobe
  • auditory & olfactory areas
frontal lobe
Frontal Lobe
  • Brocca’s Area: ability to speak
    • @ base of precentralgyrus (usually only on left side)
    • injury  inability to correctly vocalize words
lobe functions
Lobe Functions
  • anterior frontal lobe: higher intellectual reasoning
  • complex memories: frontal/ temporal lobe
  • all facets of speech: occipital/temporal/parietal lobes
basal nuclei
Basal Nuclei
  • gray matter in brain that is NOT in cerebral cortex
  • functions: help regulate voluntary motor activity by modifying instructions sent to skeletal muscle by primary motor cortex
  • sits atop brain stem
  • enclosed by cerebral hemispheres
  • major parts:
    • Thalamus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Limbic system
    • Epithalamus
  • relay station for sensory impulses passing thru to sensory cortex
  • ANS center
  • role in:
    • temperature control
    • water balance
    • metabolism
limbic system
Limbic System
  • regulates autonomic & endocrine functions in response to emotional stimuli (“reacting” brain vs. cerebral cortex being “thinking” brain)
    • set level of arousal
    • motivation
    • reinforcing behaviors
    • rage, love, memory, empathy
brain stem
Brain Stem
  • ~size of thumb in diameter & ~ 3 inches long
  • 3 parts:
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
choroid plexus
Choroid Plexus
  • knots of capillaries w/in each ventricle
  • produce & secrete CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)
  • smallest, uppermost part of brain stem
  • cerebral aquaduct: tiny canal that runs thru midbrain connecting 3rd & 4th ventricles
  • contains reflex centers for vision, hearing
  • “bridge”
  • rounded structure that protrudes below midbrain
  • contains apneustic (produces deep, prolonged inspirations) & pneumotatic center (inhibits inspiration)
medulla oblongata
Medulla Oblongata
  • most inferior part of brain stem
  • inferior border merges into spinal cord
  • centers: heart rate, BP, breathing, swallowing, vomiting
  • large, cauliflower-like
  • projects dorsally from under occipital lobe
  • 2 hemispheres
  • convoluted surface
  • provides precise timing for skeletal muscle activity
  • Controls balance & equilibrium
traumatic brain injuries
Traumatic Brain Injuries
  • Head injuries are leading cause of accidental death in USA.
  • Concussion: dizziness, “see stars”, briefly lose consciousness; No permanent brain damage
  • Contusion: result of marked tissue damage. Cerebrum: may maintain consciousness Brainstem: coma
  • Cerebral Edema: swelling of brain due to inflammatory response to injury/ initially conscious neuro signs deteriorate (think edema or hemorrhage)
cerebrovascular accident cva
Cerebrovascular Accident(CVA)
  • stroke
  • 3rd leading cause of death in USA
  • occur when blood circulation to brain is interrupted
    • vessel could be blocked (temporary or permanent) or hemorrhaging
  • characterized by:
    • abrupt onset of persisting neurological symptoms that arise from destruction of brain tissue

common causes:

    • intracerebral hemorrhage
    • emboli
    • atherosclerosis of cerebral arteries
cva risk factors
CVA Risk Factors



heart disease

narrowed carotid arteries

hx of TIAs (transient ischemic attacks)




excessive alcohol intake

cva treatments
CVA Treatments
  • Thrombolytic:
    • clot-dissolving drug: tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) greatly improved prognosis for CVA
    • aspirin (makes plts slippery  fewer clots)
    • blood thinners
sequelae of cva
Sequelae of CVA
  • Aphasia: from damage to left side cerebrum where language centers are
  • Motor Aphasia:
    • damage to Broca’s area
    • loss of ability to speak
  • Sensory Aphasia:
    • loss of ability to understand written or spoken word
  • Transient Ischemic Attack
  • “mini-stroke”
  • due to temporary restriction of blood flow
  • symptoms last 5 – 50 minutes
  • “red flags” that warn impending & more serious CVAs
alzheimer disease ad
Alzheimer Disease (AD)
  • most common type of dementia
  • >10% population > age 65
  • 4th leading cause of death in US
  • characterized by progressive loss of reasoning & ability to care for oneself
  • cause of most cases unknown but…
    • genetic factors
    • environmental or lifestyle factors
    • normal aging process