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Child Soldiers in Bosnia. Ysabella Johnson Carter Reints Sharon Sethna Dylan White. Background Picture: < http://farm1.static.flickr.com/153/361684179_e0babcf30e.jpg. What Are Child Soldiers?.

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child soldiers in bosnia
Child Soldiers in Bosnia

Ysabella Johnson

Carter Reints

Sharon Sethna

Dylan White

Background Picture: <http://farm1.static.flickr.com/153/361684179_e0babcf30e.jpg

slide3

A child who has been forced to commit acts of violence for a particular military group. The children are generally recruited or kidnapped by armed force and threatened with violence if they do not comply.

slide4

“A child associated with an armed force or armed group refers to any person below 18 years of age who is or who has been recruited or used by an armed force or armed group in any capacity, including but not limited to children, boys and girls, used as fighters, cooks, porters, spies or for sexual purposes. It does not only refer to a child who is taking or has taken a direct part in hostilities.”

-Child Soldiers International

location of child soldiers
Location of Child Soldiers
  • Around the world, there are 300,000 children in combat, and in addition about half a million serve in armies
  • Child Soldiers are used in Bosnia, Burundi, Columbia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Uganda, Myanmar, and many other countries
  • They are so common, even Western armies have fought against child soldiers.

A map of where child soldiers are located in the world in 2000/2001

<http://www.un.org/works/goingon/soldiers/childsoldiersmap.html>.

child soldiers in bosnia background information
Child Soldiers in Bosnia Background Information

Background Photo <http://www.nickfleming.com/images/zoom/gurkhas/Bosnian-Boys.jpg>

slide7

Former Yugoslavia Split up into the countries Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Yugoslav wars in the 1990’s

  • Wars deciding where the new countries boundaries would be
  • There were many small wars along the borders
  • Bosnia and Maldova had the most child soldiers in the area

A map of Bosnia and Hergovina<http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/bosnia_herzegovina_pol97.jpg>

bosnia
Bosnia
  • Bosnia is located in Eastern Europe and it touches the Adriatic Sea.
  • The capital of Bosnia is Sarajevo and since more people live here this is where the majority of the children soldiers came from during the civil war beginning in 1992.
  • Many children were also taken from Mostar, the third largest city in Bosnia.

Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia<http://www.bhuknetwork.org/english/bihcapital.aspx>

slide9

During the civil war, a majority of the children had been in situations where they believed they would die.

  • Children weren’t always part of the fighting, sometimes they were utilized in support roles such as cooks or servants to help the actual soldiers
  • Just like other forms of trafficking parents were tricked into giving up their children during the conflict.
child soldiers are illegal
Child Soldiers are Illegal
  • International child protection groups and psychologists have warned how easily manipulated in armed conflicts
    • They say that children are too young to make informed decisions
  • The International Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers Says even when a child voluntarily joins the amend forces, adults are committing a serious crime by welcoming them into the ranks
statistics
Statistics

Bosnia Flag

<http://www.33ff.com/flags/worldflags/Bosnia-and-Herzegovina_flag.html>

slide12

Between 1992-1995 roughly 4,000 children were forced into combat in the formal Yugoslavia, mostly in Bosnia

    • With some of the youngest being ten
    • Some government officials deny this
slide13

One shocking statistic was 55 percent of children in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina had been shot at, and 66 percent had been in a situation where they expected to die.

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the number of child causalities was the highest since 2004. Majority of child causalities were boys (about 80%).

real accounts of child soldiers in bosnia
Real Accounts of Child Soldiers in Bosnia

Background Picture: <http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3362/3663052008_59a0d6294c.jpg>

slide15

NarcisMisanoivcwas recruited by the Bosnian Army at age eleven:

“‘I was in Dobrinja the entire time, a neighborhood that was under siege throughout the war, without food, without water, without gas, and without the possibility of leading a normal life. I was a member of the Third battalion of the Fifth troop’“

slide16

AdinSalkanovic was 14 when he spent a year As a Bosnian Child Soldier

  • Salkanovic battled on the front lines against Serbian soldiers that surrounded his hometown of Sarajevo
  • He now Serves a Staff Sergeant for the United States Army

“Photo of AdinSalkanovic” <http://www.military.com/NewContent/0,13190,SS_081704_Bosnian,00.html>

slide17

Children playing with toy guns in Sarajevo. <http://www.rferl.org/content/Child_Soldiers_Of_The_Balkans/1349516.html>

prevalence currently no child soldiers
Prevalence : Currently no Child Soldiers

Background Picture: <http://www.osce.org/files/imagecache/small/images/web/f/d/12049.jpg?1269007111>

slide19

The war included three ethnic groups the Bosniaks, Serbians, and Croatians that were all living in Bosnia at the time, so it was considered a civil war.

  • Before the war these three groups of people lived together peacefully in a cities like Mostar.
  • The war was finally brought to an end with peaceful negotiations which formed the Dayton Peace Agreement.

The capital of Bosnia

<http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/bosnia.html>

At the end of the war it was estimated between 100,000 and 200,000 people died

slide20

Although child soldiers was a serious issue in Bosnia in the past, new reports say there is currently no one under 18 serving in the armed forces

  • Minimum age for voluntarily joining the army was 17, however in 2003 this number was changed to 18
prevention
Prevention

Background Picture: <http://bosniangenocide.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/american-soldiers-with-bosnian-muslim-refugees-near-zivinice.jpg>

slide22

In 2003, Bosnia-Herzegovia stated that military recruitment for children under the age of 18 is not permitted

  • In 2005, parliament abolished many defense ministries in The Federation of Bosnia

The presentation before the UN Committee on Rights of Child in Bosnia-Herzegovia

slide23

Countries outside of places with child soldiers are also helping by passing laws such as the Child Soldier Prevention Act

  • It put restrictions on the U.S. military assistance for governments that allow child soldiers to be used

An excerpt from the Bill Text for the Child Soldier Prevention Act

<http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c110:S.1175.IS:>.

slide24

Many sources have concluded that the only way to fully stop the recruiting of child soldiers is to stop the war itself.

  • However, there are other ways that it can help be prevented, such as a law and justice system protecting children from serving
  • There are also many organizations such as Amnesty International and The International Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers whose goal is to help the fight of children’s rights
works citied
Works Citied
  • "Children Playing with Toy Guns in Sarajevo." Photograph.RadioLiberty. RadioLiberty. RFE/RL, 2008. Web. 25 Oct 2011. <http://www.rferl.org/content/Child_Soldiers_Of_The_Balkans/1349516.html>.
  • International, Child Soldiers. Child Soldiers International. 2007. 24 October 2011 <http://www.child-soldiers.org/csi/child_soldiers_international>.
  • Narcis, Misanoivc. "Child Soldiers Of The Balkans." Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty . Interview by MirjanaRakela. Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty , 15 11 2008. 1-3. Print. <http://www.rferl.org/content/Child_Soldiers_Of_The_Balkans/1349516.html>.
  • "WORLD MAP OF CHILD SOLDIERS (2000/2001)." Photograph. Coalition to stop Child Soldiers. CSC, 2001. Web. 25 Oct 2011. <http://www.un.org/works/goingon/soldiers/childsoldiersmap.html>.
  • Kaplan, Eben. "Child Soldiers Around the World." Council on Foreign Relations. CFR, 5 December 2005. Web. 25 Oct 2011. <http://www.cfr.org/human-rights/child-soldiers-around-world/p9331
  • "Child Soldier Prevention Act."World Vision- Building a Better World for Children. World Vision, n.d. Web. 25 Oct 2011. <http://www.worldvision.org/content.nsf/learn/globalissues-childprotection-conflict-bill>.
  • 11oth Congress, . "Bill Text 110th Congress (2007-2008) S.1175.IS."The Library of Congress. N.p., 19 April 2007. Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c110:S.1175.IS:>.
  • "Bosnia-Herzegovina." Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers. Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, 2009. Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://www.childsoldiersglobalreport.org/content/bosnia-herzegovina>.
  • "Presentation before the UN Committee ." ORCHR. N.p., 2005. Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/statements/39bih.pdf>.
  • "Bosnia and Herzegovina." Photograph. Embassy World, Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=Bosnia and Herzegovina&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1280&bih=699&tbm=isch&tbnid=bPBf81MJU98y1M:&imgrefurl=http://www.embassyworld.com/maps/Maps_Of_Bosnia.html&docid=eis9DeteUKv90M&imgurl=http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/bosnia_herzegovina_pol97.jpg&w=1212&h=1496&ei=9l6oTu_nF5PSiAKk9bH-DQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=412&sig=109093054641362657101&page=1&tbnh=151&tbnw=122&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0&tx=81&ty=72>.
  • Chudy, Jason. "From Bosnian Child Soldier to U.S. Army Leader."Military.com Mobile | News. Military.com, 17 Aug. 2004. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://www.military.com/NewContent/0,13190,SS_081704_Bosnian,00.html
  • "Glossary | reckoning.facinghistory.org."Overview | reckoning.facinghistory.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. <http://reckoning.facinghistory.org/content/glossary
  • "UNHCR | Refworld | Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 – Bosnia Herzegovina." UNHCR Welcome. The UN Refugee Agency 20 May 2008. Web. 25 Oct. 2011 <http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,CSCOAL,,BIH,,486cb0eb2d,0.html
  • "School Kids Timeline." Photograph. Dipity, 2008. Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=bosnian children soldier&um=1&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=699&tbm=isch&tbnid=_REBl4gFR1Iy0M:&imgrefurl=http://www.dipity.com/tickr/Flickr_school_kids/&docid=zslXmNtv33ycQM&imgurl=http://static.flickr.com/153/361684179_e0babcf30e.jpg&w=500&h=326&ei=RWqoTtecLYiEsAK6tc2kDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=479&vpy=169&dur=246&hovh=181&hovw=278&tx=223&ty=115&sig=109093054641362657101&page=1&tbnh=141&tbnw=217&start=0&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0>.
  • "Children Near Travnik: Bosnia." Photograph. NickFlemming. Nick Flemming. Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=bosnian children soldier&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1280&bih=699&tbm=isch&tbnid=362S8PY4G4mh7M:&imgrefurl=http://www.nickfleming.com/photography/view/British_Gurkha_Soldiers/Children_Near_Travnik%3A_Bosnia.html&docid=TI6sAxRycj6HwM&imgurl=http://www.nickfleming.com/images/zoom/gurkhas/Bosnian-Boys.jpg&w=515&h=340&ei=PW-oTpHTHfKMsALnoKDABQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=234&sig=109093054641362657101&page=2&tbnh=155&tbnw=207&start=16&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:16&tx=121&ty=42>.
works cited cont
Works Cited Cont.

16. "Saying "No" to Recruiting Child Soldiers." Photograph. dailykos. Jim Luce. 2009. Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?q=bosnian children soldier&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1280&bih=699&tbm=isch&tbnid=362S8PY4G4mh7M:&imgrefurl=http://www.nickfleming.com/photography/view/British_Gurkha_Soldiers/Children_Near_Travnik%3A_Bosnia.html&docid=TI6sAxRycj6HwM&imgurl=http://www.nickfleming.com/images/zoom/gurkhas/Bosnian-Boys.jpg&w=515&h=340&ei=PW-oTpHTHfKMsALnoKDABQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=234&sig=109093054641362657101&page=2&tbnh=155&tbnw=207&start=16&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:16&tx=121&ty=42>.

17. "OSCE Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina ." Photograph. OSCE. OSCE. 2003. Web. 26 Oct 2011. http://www.osce.org/bih/12049

18. " An art drawing made by a former Ugandan child soldier." Photograph. UNGIFT. Beatrice Lamwaka-. 2003. Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://www.osce.org/bih/12049>..

19. "Impact on children of illicit trafficking of small arms, landmines and unexploded ordnance ." Children And Armed Conflict. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Oct 2011. <http://www.un.org/children/conflict/english/smallarmslandmines.html>.

20. Multiple Authors, . "History of the war in Bosnia." Center for Balkan Development. N.p., May 1996. Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://www.balkandevelopment.org/edu_bos.html >.

21. "Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 - Bosnia-Herzegovina." Refworld. Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, 20 May 2008. Web. 25 Oct 2011. <http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,CSCOAL,,BIH,,486cb0eb2d,0.html>.

22. What is a Child Soldier?."Promising Futures, Community By Community. The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, n.d. Web. 26 Oct 2011. <http://www.planusa.org/contentmgr/showdetails.php/id/2147

Background Picture: <http://womennewsnetwork.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/008-UgandaformerchildsoldierDrawing-ImageUNGIFT.jpg>