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Chapter 6 Systems Development Steps, Tools, and Techniques. Presentation Overview. Seven Phases In The Systems Development Life Cycle Knowledge Workers and Their Roles In The Systems Development Life Cycle Why Systems Fail Selfsourcing Outsourcing Prototyping.

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slide1
Chapter 6

Systems Development

Steps, Tools, and Techniques

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

presentation overview
Presentation Overview
  • Seven Phases In The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Knowledge Workers and Their Roles In The Systems Development Life Cycle
  • Why Systems Fail
  • Selfsourcing
  • Outsourcing
  • Prototyping

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

opening case study building the unbelievable the hoberman arch
Opening Case StudyBuilding The Unbelievable – The Hoberman Arch
  • Many information systems are developed and brought to life by following the systems development life cycle.
  • Why is knowledge worker involvement in each phase of the SDLC critical for successful system development?

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

introduction
Introduction
  • Systems development life cycle (SDLC) - a structured step-by-step approach for developing information systems.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 1 plan
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 1: Plan
  • Define the system to be developed.
  • Set the project scope.
  • Develop the project plan including tasks, resources, and timeframes.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 1 plan1
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 1: Plan
  • Planning phase - involves determining a solid plan for developing your information system.
  • Critical success factor (CSF) - a factor simply critical to your organization’s success.
  • Project scope - clearly defines the high-level system requirements.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 1 plan2
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 1: Plan
  • Projectscope document - a written definition of the project scope and is usually no longer than a paragraph.
  • Project plan - defines the what, when, and who questions of system development including all activities to be performed, the individuals, or resources, who will perform the activities, and the time required to complete each activity.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 1 plan3
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 1: Plan
  • Project milestones - represent key dates for which you need a certain group of activities performed.
  • Project manager - an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan and tracks the plan to ensure all key project milestones are completed on time.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 2 analysis
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 2: Analysis
  • Gather the business requirements for the system.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 2 analysis1
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 2: Analysis
  • Analysis phase - involves end users and IT specialists working together to gather, understand, and document the business requirements for the proposed system.
  • Business requirements - the detailed set of knowledge worker requests that the system must meet in order to be successful.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 2 analysis2
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 2: Analysis
  • Joint application development (JAD) - knowledge workers and IT specialists meet, sometimes for several days, to define or review the business requirements for the system.
  • Requirements definition document – prioritizes the business requirements and places them in a formal comprehensive document.
  • Sign-off - the knowledge workers’ actual signatures indicating they approve all of the business requirements.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 3 design
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 3: Design
  • Design the technical architecture required to support the system.
  • Design system models.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 3 design1
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 3: Design
  • Design phase - build a technical blueprint of how the proposed system will work.
  • Technical architecture - defines the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment required to run the system.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 3 design2
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 3: Design
  • Modeling - the activity of drawing a graphical representation of a design.
  • Graphical user interface (GUI) - the interface to an information system.
  • GUI screen design - the ability to model the information system screens for an entire system.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 3 design3
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 3: Design

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 4 development
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 4: Development
  • Build the technical architecture.
  • Build the database and programs.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 4 development1
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 4: Development
  • Development phase - take all of your detailed design documents from the design phase and transform them into an actual system.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 5 test
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 5: Test
  • Write the test conditions.
  • Perform the testing of the system.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 5 test1
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 5: Test
  • Testing phase - verifies that the system works and meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase.
  • Test conditions - the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 6 implement
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 6: Implement
  • Write detailed user documentation.
  • Provide training for the system users.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 6 implement1
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 6: Implement
  • Implementation phase - distribute the system to all of the knowledge workers and they begin using the system to perform their everyday jobs.
  • User documentation - highlights how to use the system.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 6 implement2
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 6: Implement
  • Online training - runs over the Internet or off a CD-ROM.
  • Workshop training - is held in a classroom environment and lead by an instructor.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 7 maintain
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 7: Maintain
  • Build a help desk to support the system users.
  • Provide an environment to support system changes.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

seven phases in the sdlc phase 7 maintain1
Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 7: Maintain
  • Maintenance phase - monitor and support the new system to ensure it continues to meet the business goals.
  • Help desk - a group of people who responds to knowledge workers’ questions.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc
Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLC
  • Your participation in the systems development process is vitally important because you are (or will be) a:
    • Business process expert
    • Liaison to the customer
    • Quality control analyst
    • Manager of other people

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc plan
Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCPlan
  • Define which systems are to be developed.
  • Define the project scope, project plan, and project milestones.
  • Allocate individuals to work on the different activities.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc analysis
Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCAnalysis
  • Review all business requirements.
  • It’s far cheaper to find an error during the planning or analysis phase than it is to find the same error during the implementation or maintenance phase.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc analysis1
Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCAnalysis

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc design
Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCDesign
  • IT specialists perform most of the activities during the design phase.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc develop
Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCDevelop
  • Confirm any changes to business requirements.
  • Track the progress of tasks on the project plan to ensure timely delivery of the system.
  • IT specialists complete many of the activities in the development phase.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc test
Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCTest
  • Review the test conditions to ensure the IT specialists have tested all of the system functionality and that every single test condition has passed.
  • User acceptance testing (UAT) - determines if the system satisfies the business requirements and enables the knowledge workers to perform their jobs correctly.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc implement
Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCImplement
  • Attend training.
  • Ensure all of the knowledge workers have the required training in order to use the system correctly.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc maintain
Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCMaintain
  • Ensure all of the knowledge workers have the support they require in order to use the system.
  • Develop a help desk.
  • Develop change request forms for your users to fill out if they require a change to the system.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

knowledge workers and their roles in the sdlc it specialists and knowledge workers working together

Team Work

Your Responsibilities During

Each Phase of the

Systems Development Life Cycle

(p. 298)

Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCIT Specialists and Knowledge Workers Working Together

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

why systems fail
Why Systems Fail
  • 20% of systems are successful, 80% of systems fail.
  • Five primary reasons why systems fail include:
    • Unclear or missing requirements
    • Skipping SDLC phases
    • Failure to manage project scope
    • Failure to manage project plan
    • Changing technology

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

why systems fail unclear or missing requirements
Why Systems FailUnclear or Missing Requirements
  • The business requirements drive the entire system.
  • If they are not accurate or complete there is no way the system will be successful.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

why systems fail skipping sdlc phases
Why Systems FailSkipping SDLC Phases
  • The first thing individuals tend to do when a project falls behind schedule is to start skipping phases in the SDLC.
  • Skipping any of the phases is sure to lead to system failure.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

why systems fail failure to manage project scope
Why Systems FailFailure To Manage Project Scope
  • The project manager must track the status of each activity and adjust the project plan if a activity is added or taking longer than expected.
  • Scope creep - occurs when the scope of the project increases.
  • Feature creep - occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

why systems fail failure to manage project plan
Why Systems Fail Failure To Manage Project Plan
  • The project plan is the road map you follow during the development of the system.
  • Developing the initial project plan is the easy.
  • Managing, revising, and updating the project plan is the hard part.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

why systems fail changing technology
Why Systems Fail Changing Technology
  • Technology changes so fast that it’s almost impossible to deliver an information system without feeling the pain of changing technology.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

insourcing
Insourcing
  • Three choices for building a system include:
    • IT specialists within your organization - Insourcing
    • Knowledge workers such as yourself – Selfsourcing
    • Another organization – Outsourcing
  • Insourcing - IT specialists within your organization will develop the system.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

selfsourcing

On Your Own

How Have

You Selfsourced?

(p. 303)

Selfsourcing
  • Selfsourcing (also called knowledge worker development or end user development) - the development and support of IT systems by knowledge workers with little or no help from IT specialists.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

selfsourcing the selfsourcing process
SelfsourcingThe Selfsourcing Process

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

selfsourcing the advantages of selfsourcing
Selfsourcing The Advantages of Selfsourcing
  • Improves requirements determination.
  • Increases knowledge worker participation and sense of ownership.
  • Increases speed of systems development.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

selfsourcing potential pitfalls and risks of selfsourcing
Selfsourcing Potential Pitfalls and Risks of Selfsourcing
  • Inadequate knowledge worker expertise leads to inadequately developed systems.
  • Lack of organizational focus creates “privatized” IT systems.
  • Insufficient analysis of design alternatives leads to subpar IT systems.
  • Lack of documentation and external support leads to short-lived systems.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

outsourcing developing strategic partnerships
OutsourcingDeveloping Strategic Partnerships
  • Outsourcing - the delegation of specific work to a third party for a specified length of time, at a specified cost, and at a specified level of service.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

outsourcing developing strategic partnerships1
OutsourcingDeveloping Strategic Partnerships
  • IT outsourcing takes on 1 of 4 forms:
    • Purchasing existing software.
    • Purchasing existing software and pay the publisher to make certain modifications.
    • Purchasing existing software and pay the publisher for the right to make modifications yourself.
    • Outsourcing the development of an entirely new and unique system for which no software exists.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

outsourcing developing strategic partnerships2

Team Work

How Many Outsourcing Companies Are There?

(p. 306)

OutsourcingDeveloping Strategic Partnerships

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

outsourcing the outsourcing process
OutsourcingThe Outsourcing Process

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

outsourcing the outsourcing process1
OutsourcingThe Outsourcing Process
  • Steps of the outsourcing process
  • Plan
  • Define project scope
  • Select a target system
  • Establish logical requirements

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

outsourcing the outsourcing process2
OutsourcingThe Outsourcing Process
  • Develop a request for proposal
    • Request for proposal (RFP) - a formal document that describes in detail your logical requirements for a proposed system and invites outsourcing organizations to submit bids for its development.
  • Evaluate request for proposal returns and choose a vendor
  • Test and accept solution
  • Monitor and reevaluate

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

outsourcing the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing
OutsourcingThe Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing
  • Advantages of outsourcing include:
    • Focus on unique core competencies.
    • Exploit the intellect of another organization.
    • Better predict future costs.
    • Acquire leading-edge technology.
    • Reduce costs.
    • Improve performance accountability.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

outsourcing the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing1
OutsourcingThe Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing
  • Disadvantages of outsourcing include:
    • Reduces technical know-how for future innovation.
    • Reduces degree of control.
    • Increases vulnerability of strategic information.
    • Increases dependency on other organizations.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

outsourcing the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing2

On Your Own

A Request for Proposal and the

Systems Development Life Cycle

(p. 311)

OutsourcingThe Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

prototyping
Prototyping
  • Prototyping - the process of building a model that demonstrates the features of a proposed product, service, or system.
  • Prototype - a model of a proposed product, service, or system.
  • Proof-of-concept prototype - used to prove the technical feasibility of a proposed system.
  • Selling prototype - used to convince people of the worth of a proposed system.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

prototyping the prototyping process
PrototypingThe Prototyping Process

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

prototyping the prototyping process1
PrototypingThe Prototyping Process
  • The prototyping process involves four steps:
    • Identify basic requirements
    • Develop initial prototype
    • Knowledge worker review
    • Revise and enhance the prototype

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

prototyping the advantages of prototyping
PrototypingThe Advantages of Prototyping
  • Encourages active knowledge worker participation. 
  • Helps resolve discrepancies among knowledge workers. 
  • Gives knowledge workers a feel for the final system. 
  • Helps determine technical feasibility.
  • Helps sell the idea of a proposed system. 

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

prototyping the disadvantages of prototyping
PrototypingThe Disadvantages of Prototyping
  • Leads people to believe the final system will follow shortly.
  • Gives no indication of performance under operational conditions.
  • Leads the project team to forgo proper testing and documentation.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

closing case study one some prototypes hit some miss and some we are just not sure about
Closing Case Study OneSome Prototypes Hit, Some Miss, and Some We Are Just Not Sure About
  • There are many hilarious prototypes that failed such as garlic cake and toaster eggs.
  • How can prototyping help you develop a successful system?

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

closing case study two al s barbeque restaurant
Closing Case Study TwoAl’s Barbeque Restaurant
  • Automating a manual business is an extremely difficult task.
  • How can the systems development life cycle help you implement a new system?

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

summary student learning outcomes
Summary Student Learning Outcomes
  • List the seven steps in the systems development life cycle and an associated activity for each step.
  • List four reasons why your participation during the systems development life cycle is critical.
  • Describe three of the five reasons why projects fail.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

summary student learning outcomes1
Summary Student Learning Outcomes
  • Define the three different ways you can staff a system development project.
  • List two of the three advantages of selfsourcing.
  • Describe prototyping and profile an example of a prototype.
  • Describe two of the five advantages of prototyping.

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

summary assignments exercises
Summary Assignments & Exercises
  • SDLC and the real world
  • How creative are you?
  • Request for proposal
  • Understanding insourcing
  • Managing the project plan
  • Why prototype?
  • Business requirements
  • Why projects fail
  • Construction and the SDLC

Management Information Systems for the Information Age

visit the web to learn more www mhhe com haag
Visit the Web to Learn Morewww.mhhe.com/haag
  • Using your computer for more than work
  • Animating your computer screen
  • Protecting your computer investment
  • Searching for freeware and shareware
  • Project planning and project management

Management Information Systems for the Information Age