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Chapter 6 Systems Development Steps, Tools, and Techniques
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Chapter 6 Systems Development Steps, Tools, and Techniques

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  1. Chapter 6 Systems Development Steps, Tools, and Techniques Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  2. Presentation Overview • Seven Phases In The Systems Development Life Cycle • Knowledge Workers and Their Roles In The Systems Development Life Cycle • Why Systems Fail • Selfsourcing • Outsourcing • Prototyping Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  3. Opening Case StudyBuilding The Unbelievable – The Hoberman Arch • Many information systems are developed and brought to life by following the systems development life cycle. • Why is knowledge worker involvement in each phase of the SDLC critical for successful system development? Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  4. Introduction • Systems development life cycle (SDLC) - a structured step-by-step approach for developing information systems. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  5. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 1: Plan • Define the system to be developed. • Set the project scope. • Develop the project plan including tasks, resources, and timeframes. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  6. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 1: Plan • Planning phase - involves determining a solid plan for developing your information system. • Critical success factor (CSF) - a factor simply critical to your organization’s success. • Project scope - clearly defines the high-level system requirements. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  7. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 1: Plan • Projectscope document - a written definition of the project scope and is usually no longer than a paragraph. • Project plan - defines the what, when, and who questions of system development including all activities to be performed, the individuals, or resources, who will perform the activities, and the time required to complete each activity. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  8. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 1: Plan • Project milestones - represent key dates for which you need a certain group of activities performed. • Project manager - an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan and tracks the plan to ensure all key project milestones are completed on time. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  9. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 2: Analysis • Gather the business requirements for the system. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  10. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 2: Analysis • Analysis phase - involves end users and IT specialists working together to gather, understand, and document the business requirements for the proposed system. • Business requirements - the detailed set of knowledge worker requests that the system must meet in order to be successful. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  11. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 2: Analysis • Joint application development (JAD) - knowledge workers and IT specialists meet, sometimes for several days, to define or review the business requirements for the system. • Requirements definition document – prioritizes the business requirements and places them in a formal comprehensive document. • Sign-off - the knowledge workers’ actual signatures indicating they approve all of the business requirements. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  12. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 3: Design • Design the technical architecture required to support the system. • Design system models. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  13. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 3: Design • Design phase - build a technical blueprint of how the proposed system will work. • Technical architecture - defines the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment required to run the system. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  14. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 3: Design • Modeling - the activity of drawing a graphical representation of a design. • Graphical user interface (GUI) - the interface to an information system. • GUI screen design - the ability to model the information system screens for an entire system. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  15. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 3: Design Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  16. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 4: Development • Build the technical architecture. • Build the database and programs. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  17. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 4: Development • Development phase - take all of your detailed design documents from the design phase and transform them into an actual system. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  18. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 5: Test • Write the test conditions. • Perform the testing of the system. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  19. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 5: Test • Testing phase - verifies that the system works and meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase. • Test conditions - the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  20. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 6: Implement • Write detailed user documentation. • Provide training for the system users. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  21. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 6: Implement • Implementation phase - distribute the system to all of the knowledge workers and they begin using the system to perform their everyday jobs. • User documentation - highlights how to use the system. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  22. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 6: Implement • Online training - runs over the Internet or off a CD-ROM. • Workshop training - is held in a classroom environment and lead by an instructor. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  23. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 7: Maintain • Build a help desk to support the system users. • Provide an environment to support system changes. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  24. Seven Phases in the SDLCPhase 7: Maintain • Maintenance phase - monitor and support the new system to ensure it continues to meet the business goals. • Help desk - a group of people who responds to knowledge workers’ questions. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  25. Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLC • Your participation in the systems development process is vitally important because you are (or will be) a: • Business process expert • Liaison to the customer • Quality control analyst • Manager of other people Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  26. Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCPlan • Define which systems are to be developed. • Define the project scope, project plan, and project milestones. • Allocate individuals to work on the different activities. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  27. Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCAnalysis • Review all business requirements. • It’s far cheaper to find an error during the planning or analysis phase than it is to find the same error during the implementation or maintenance phase. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  28. Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCAnalysis Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  29. Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCDesign • IT specialists perform most of the activities during the design phase. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  30. Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCDevelop • Confirm any changes to business requirements. • Track the progress of tasks on the project plan to ensure timely delivery of the system. • IT specialists complete many of the activities in the development phase. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  31. Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCTest • Review the test conditions to ensure the IT specialists have tested all of the system functionality and that every single test condition has passed. • User acceptance testing (UAT) - determines if the system satisfies the business requirements and enables the knowledge workers to perform their jobs correctly. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  32. Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCImplement • Attend training. • Ensure all of the knowledge workers have the required training in order to use the system correctly. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  33. Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCMaintain • Ensure all of the knowledge workers have the support they require in order to use the system. • Develop a help desk. • Develop change request forms for your users to fill out if they require a change to the system. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  34. Team Work Your Responsibilities During Each Phase of the Systems Development Life Cycle (p. 298) Knowledge Workers and Their Roles in the SDLCIT Specialists and Knowledge Workers Working Together Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  35. Why Systems Fail • 20% of systems are successful, 80% of systems fail. • Five primary reasons why systems fail include: • Unclear or missing requirements • Skipping SDLC phases • Failure to manage project scope • Failure to manage project plan • Changing technology Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  36. Why Systems FailUnclear or Missing Requirements • The business requirements drive the entire system. • If they are not accurate or complete there is no way the system will be successful. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  37. Why Systems FailSkipping SDLC Phases • The first thing individuals tend to do when a project falls behind schedule is to start skipping phases in the SDLC. • Skipping any of the phases is sure to lead to system failure. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  38. Why Systems FailFailure To Manage Project Scope • The project manager must track the status of each activity and adjust the project plan if a activity is added or taking longer than expected. • Scope creep - occurs when the scope of the project increases. • Feature creep - occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  39. Why Systems Fail Failure To Manage Project Plan • The project plan is the road map you follow during the development of the system. • Developing the initial project plan is the easy. • Managing, revising, and updating the project plan is the hard part. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  40. Why Systems Fail Changing Technology • Technology changes so fast that it’s almost impossible to deliver an information system without feeling the pain of changing technology. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  41. Insourcing • Three choices for building a system include: • IT specialists within your organization - Insourcing • Knowledge workers such as yourself – Selfsourcing • Another organization – Outsourcing • Insourcing - IT specialists within your organization will develop the system. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  42. On Your Own How Have You Selfsourced? (p. 303) Selfsourcing • Selfsourcing (also called knowledge worker development or end user development) - the development and support of IT systems by knowledge workers with little or no help from IT specialists. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  43. SelfsourcingThe Selfsourcing Process Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  44. Selfsourcing The Advantages of Selfsourcing • Improves requirements determination. • Increases knowledge worker participation and sense of ownership. • Increases speed of systems development. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  45. Selfsourcing Potential Pitfalls and Risks of Selfsourcing • Inadequate knowledge worker expertise leads to inadequately developed systems. • Lack of organizational focus creates “privatized” IT systems. • Insufficient analysis of design alternatives leads to subpar IT systems. • Lack of documentation and external support leads to short-lived systems. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  46. OutsourcingDeveloping Strategic Partnerships • Outsourcing - the delegation of specific work to a third party for a specified length of time, at a specified cost, and at a specified level of service. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  47. OutsourcingDeveloping Strategic Partnerships • IT outsourcing takes on 1 of 4 forms: • Purchasing existing software. • Purchasing existing software and pay the publisher to make certain modifications. • Purchasing existing software and pay the publisher for the right to make modifications yourself. • Outsourcing the development of an entirely new and unique system for which no software exists. Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  48. Team Work How Many Outsourcing Companies Are There? (p. 306) OutsourcingDeveloping Strategic Partnerships Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  49. OutsourcingThe Outsourcing Process Management Information Systems for the Information Age

  50. OutsourcingThe Outsourcing Process • Steps of the outsourcing process • Plan • Define project scope • Select a target system • Establish logical requirements Management Information Systems for the Information Age