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Psychometrics of the Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport – Lesbian Scale Elizabeth M. Mullin, Ph.D., CC-AASP, CSCS Physical Education & Health Education Department, Springfield College. Purpose

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Psychometrics of the Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport – Lesbian Scale

Elizabeth M. Mullin, Ph.D., CC-AASP, CSCS

Physical Education & Health Education Department, Springfield College

Purpose

To provide evidence of criterion, convergent, and factorial validity, as well as test-retest reliability

and internal consistency of the Heterosexist Attitudes in Sport – Lesbian (HAS-L) scale.

  • Introduction
  • Researchers have reported the following correlates of homophobia:
    • Gender(Bouton et al., 1987; Harry, 1995; Henley & Pincus, 1978; Herek & Glunt, 1993; Hinrichs & Rosenberg, 2002; Lim, 2002; Morrison & Morrison, 2011; Raja & Stokes, 1998; Sakalli, 2002; Wright et al., 1999)
    • Sexist (Henley & Pincus, 1978; Morrison & Morrison, 2011; Sakalli, 2002) and traditional sex role beliefs (Hinrichs & Rosenberg, 2002; Kurdek, 1988; Whitley, 1987)
    • Religious involvement (Haddock et al., 1993; Henley & Pincus, 1978; Herek & Glunt, 1993; Hinrichs & Rosenberg, 2002; Morrison & Morrison, 2002, 2011)
    • Republican/Conservative values (Sakalli, 2002; Morrison & Morrison, 2011; Whitley, 1987)
    • Number of LGBT Individuals known (Herek & Capitano, 1996; Herek & Glunt, 1993; Raja & Stokes, 1998; Sakalli & Uğurlu, 2001)
  • Sport has consistently demonstrated itself as a hyper-masculine, homophobic, and heterosexist domain (Anderson, 2011; Cahn, 1993; Gill et al., 2006; Hawes, 2001; Hemppill & Symons, 2009; Jacobson, 2002; Lenskyj, 1986, 1991, 1997; Roper & Hallloran, 2007) but no researcher has used a sport-specific questionnaire to investigate heterosexism
  • Mullin (2013) developed and reported initial evidence of reliability and validity for a 14-item questionnaire to measure heterosexist attitudes in women’s athletics, the HAS-L.
  • Further evidence of reliability and validity of the HAS-L is needed.
  • Method
  • Female collegiate athletes (N = 239) from eight different sports and representing colleges in the Mid-Atlantic region participated
  • Instrumentation:
    • HAS-L (Mullin, 2013)
    • Attitudes towards Lesbians and Gay Males-Short Form (ATLG; Herek & McLemore, 2011)
    • Attitudes toward Women Scale-Short Form (ATWS; Spence & Helmrich, 1973)
    • Religious Attitudes Inventory (RAI; Ausbel & Schpoont, 1957)
    • Marlowe-Crowne Social-Desirability Scale (MC-SDS, Crowne & Marlowe, 1960)
    • Demographic questionnaire
  • Participants completed all questionnaires during session 1
  • Participants completed the HAS-L during session 2, approx. 4 weeks after session 1
  • Results
  • Fit statistics (CFI, TL, RMSEA) demonstrated acceptable fit of the model at both sessions 1 and 2. All items loaded significantly (p < .05) onto keyed domains.
  • Discussion
  • Taken together, the HAS-L continued to demonstrate evidence of reliability and validity as a measure of heterosexist attitudes in women’s college athletics.
  • The Avoidance of the Lesbian Label continues to be the weakest performing subscale and warrants consideration of edits or removal.
  • Limitations included use older questionnaires and participant fatigue during session 1.