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slide1

INTRODUCTION

Cyanobacteria ( BGA) can be found in almost every conceivable environment. Blue green algae are photosynthetic Cyanobacteria and promote the growth of lowland paddy by supplying fixed nitrogen through exudation.BGA application @ 10 kg/ha one week after rice transplantation contribute 25 - 30 kg N /ha /season with a yield enhancement of 10-15 percent. Besides fixing nitrogen, these algae excrete vitamins and hormones, which may also contribute to the growth of rice plants.

slide2

BLUE GREEN ALGAE AS COMPONENT OF INM

Blue green algae found in almost every environment, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil. They occur as plantonic cells or form phototrophic biofilm in marine environments, in damp soil, moistened rocks ,deserts

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Blue green algae are photosynthetic Cyanobacteria ,promote the growth of lowland paddy by supplying nitrogen. In Indian soils-Anabaena, Nostoc, Aulosira, Cylindrospermum, Gleotrichia, Calothrix, Scytonema, Tolypothrix, Fischerella and Westiollopsis are dominant.BGA application @ 10 kg/ha one week after rice transplantation contribute 25 - 30 kg N /ha /season with a yield increase of 10-15 percent. Blue green algae excrete vitamins and hormones, which enhance rice growth. BGA also enhances soil fertility

slide4

CHARACTERISTICS OF BLUE GREEN ALGAE

Cyanobacteria include unicellular and colonial form.

Colonies form filaments, sheets , hollow balls.

Filaments differentiate into vegetative cells,

heterocysts and resistant spores

Heterocyst is the site of nitrogen fixation

Heterocyst fix nitrogen into ammonia and nitrate Nitrate and ammonia absorbed by plants

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Treatment

Grain yield (q/ha)

2000

2001

2002

Control

34.27

39.64

45.61

40 kg N/ha

46.50

42.58

50.73

80 kg N/ha

50.67

45.84

53.80

120 kg N/ha

53.10

47.84

55.30

BGA

43.70

40.17

48.60

BGA + 40 kg N/ha

51.57

48.04

52.70

BGA + 80 kg N/ha

54.70

51.06

55.80

BGA + 120 kg N/ha

-

51.42

56.70

ALGALIZATION EFFECT ON PADDY

BGA SUPPLEMENT NITROGEN IN ACHIEVING YIELD EQUIVALENT TO MINERAL NITROGEN ALONE

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BLUE GREEN ALGAE

Fix atmospheric nitrogen

Contribute 25- 30 kg N /ha /season

BLUE GREEN ALGAE

Increase rice yield by

10-15 %

Secrete

Vitamins & hormones

slide8

MASS PRODUCTION OF BGA CULTURE

Shallow trays (2m x 1m) of galvanized sheet

Spread 8-10 kg soil plus 200 g SSP

Add water (5-15cm)

Sprinkle algal culture

Expose to sunlight

slide9

MASS PRODUCTION OF BGA CULTURE

Thick algal mat forms at 15 days

Allow water to evaporate

Collect dry algal flakes

Make into powder and pack in polybags

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LET US SUM UP

Blue green algae are photosynthetic Cyanobacteria which form phototrophic biofilm in fresh water and marine environments, in damp soil, or even on temporarily moistened rocks in deserts.

Promote the growth of lowland paddy by supplying fixed nitrogen through exudation.

Blue green algae also excrete vitamins and hormones, which may also contribute to the growth of rice plants.

contd…

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contd…

BGA application @ 10 kg/ha one week after rice transplantation contribute 25 - 30 kg N /ha /season with a yield enhancement of 10-15 percent.

Indian rice fields also harvours different BGA species – Anabaena, Nosto, Cylindrospermum, Westolliopsis, etc.

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ASSESSMENT

Q. Choose the correct answer :

i) The most commonly found Cyanobacterial species in Indian rice soil.

a) Anabaena c) Azotobacter

b)Rhizobium d) Azospirillum

ii) How much rice yield can be increased by application of BGA?

a) 10-15 % c) 15-20 %

b) 1-5 % d) 50 %

contd…

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contd…

iii) What is the function of Heterocysts?

a) fix nitrogen gas into  c) produce vitamins

ammonia and nitrate 

b) produce hormones d) phosphate solubilization

iv) Which form of nitrogen is taken up by rice plant?

a) Ammonia c) Nitrate

b) Nitrite d) Nitrogen

slide14

ASSESSMENT

Model Answers :

i) Anabaena

ii) 10-15 percent

iii) 10-15 %

iv) Fix nitrogen gas into ammonia and nitrate 

v) Ammonia

slide15

REFERENCES

i) Soil Microbiology – N. S.SubbaRao

ii) Advances in Microbiology – N. S.SubbaRao

iii) Bio-fertilizer and Organic Farming – NIIR Board

iv) Nitrogen fixing organisms

(Pure and applied aspects) – J. I. Sprent and P. Sprent