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PICTURE CODES ON. Gender and Sexual Abuse Reduction. HOW TO USE PICTURE CODES. Introduction Picture codes are materials that are used to stimulate a discussion about specific issues like behaviour which puts people at risk of HIV infection.

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picture codes on

PICTURE CODES ON

Gender and Sexual Abuse Reduction

how to use picture codes
HOW TO USE PICTURE CODES

Introduction

  • Picture codes are materials that are used to stimulate a discussion about specific issues like behaviour which puts people at risk of HIV infection.
  • The picture code has a photograph on one side showing people in different situations and on the other side has questions for the outreach worker to ask to stimulate a discussion.
  • Underneath the questions are “talking points” or information the outreach worker can share with participants.
  • Picture code stories are basically the same as picture codes except that there are several pictures that should be shown and discussed one after the other. They usually tell a story of people in different situations who make different behaviour choices.

Getting started

  • Bring together a group of one to 15 participants for a session and have participants sit in a circle or in a way they can see the picture.
  • It is best not to stand in front of the participants like a teacher since the idea is to get the participants to talk about themselves.
  • The outreach worker should lead the discussion by asking questions and not talk too much.

Asking questions

  • Show the picture to the participants and start with the general question “What is happening in this picture? That should be enough to get the discussion started.
  • Ask other questions to stimulate further discussion.
  • Skip questions that have already been discussed.
  • Ask follow-up questions to encourage the participants to offer more detail about their behaviour.
  • Try to ask open-ended questions or questions that don’t take a single word answer like “yes” or “no” such as “What do you think about that?”

Being a good listener

  • Don’t be judgmental or moralistic about the discussion.
  • There is no right or wrong answer to the questions the idea is to get participants to think about their behaviour choices.
  • A good outreach worker is a good listener who appears to be very interested in the answers to the questions.
  • Get the participants to relate what is happening in the photos with themselves or people they know.
  • Correct any misinformation at the end of the session.

Getting everyone to participate

  • Don’t let one or two people talk all the time.
  • Ask a question directly to a different person each time.
  • Re-ask the same question to different people.
  • Ask others if they agree with the responses given.

Organizing sessions

  • Discuss about six picture codes or flip chart pages in an hour-long session
  • Discussing 25 pictures in one session is less useful unless it is doubtful the outreach worker will see the participants again
  • Use the information under the “Talking Points” section to answer questions or make points that haven’t already come up in the discussion
  • If specific questions arise find a suitable picture to use to stimulate a discussion on the topic.
slide4

What is happening in these pictures?

  • Describe the relationships between the men and women?
  • How do the men feel?
  • How do the women feel?
  • Why do men think they have the right to treat women like this?
  • What can be done to stop it?
  • Talking points:
  • Men do not respect women when they scold them loudly.
  • Drinking too much alcohol increases the chances men will get angry at women.
  • Men should be more understanding of how women feel.
  • Discussing feelings about aggressive behaviour is best done when not drunk. 1
slide6

What is happening in these pictures?

  • Describe the relationships between the men and the women?
  • How do the men feel?
  • How do the women feel?
  • Why do men think they have the right to beat women?
  • What can be done to stop men from beating women?
  • Talking points:
  • Men can try to dominate by beating women.
  • Drinking too much alcohol increases the chance that men will beat women.
  • Pressure can be put on men to stop beating women if communities agree it is wrong.
  • Respect traditions like “mosadi galase.” 2
slide8

What is happening in these pictures?

  • Why do men physically force women and girls to have sex against their will?
  • Describe how being sexually abused makes women and girls feel?
  • What can be done to get men to stop sexually abusing women?
  • What can be done for communities and schools to put pressure on men and boys to stop raping?
  • Talking points:
  • Men do not respect women if they rape them.
  • Drinking too much alcohol increases the chances men will sexually abuse women.
  • If communities agree that rape is immoral and illegal, pressure can be put on men to stop. 3
slide10

What is happening in this picture?

  • Why are orphans and vulnerable children more likely to be raped than other girls?
  • Why are orphans vulnerable to sexual abuse by their male guardians?
  • What can girls do to be less vulnerable to sexual abuse?
  • What can be done to increase the self confidence of female orphans and vulnerable children?
  • Talking points:
  • Orphans and vulnerable children often feel weak and vulnerable and are easily exploited.
  • Female OVCs need to understand they have the right to control their own bodies.
  • Pressure should be put on those abusing orphans and vulnerable children to see how it hurts girls and stop. 4
slide12

What is happening in these pictures?

  • What does it take to be a good listener and help a friend with a problem?
  • Who can women and girls talk to if they want to consider taking legal action against a rapist?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of charging a rapist?
  • Talking points:
  • Discussing feelings after a rape is very good.
  • Listening and asking questions about feelings is the best way to help a raped friend.
  • Get support when reporting a rape from close friends, family, social workers or teachers.
  • AIDS drugs called PEP can be taken after a rape to reduce the chance of being infected. 5
slide14

What is happening in this picture?

  • Why is it not good for a woman to blame herself after being raped?
  • Who should a girl talk to after being raped?
  • What should she do if she wants the rapist to be charged with the crime?
  • Talking points:
  • Steps to take when reporting a rape:
  • Speak to a trusted person like a friend, family member, teacher or social worker.
  • Write down what happened, keep your clothes and try not to bath to save evidence.
  • Report the rape to the police or kgotla immediately.
  • Go with the police to the hospital or clinic.
  • 6
slide16

What is happening in this picture?

  • Why are men and boys not more afraid of going to jail for rape?
  • How is it possible that some men or boys don’t even know that rape is morally wrong and illegal?
  • What will the impact be on the life of someone who is convicted of rape?
  • What can be done to make them more aware of the harm rape causes?
  • Talking points:
  • Increasingly men and boys are being charged and convicted of rape.
  • Being charged with rape can be costly and end in jail time.
  • Men never have the right to rape a woman. 6
drunk story 11
DRUNK STORY 1
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • Describe the relationship between the woman and the men?
  • What are the intentions of the men?
  • What is the intention of the woman?
  • What do you think will happen next?
  • Talking points:
  • Drinking alcohol makes people want to have sex.
  • Women who don’t want to have sex can seem like they want to when they are drunk.
  • Men may want to exploit drunk women sexually.
  • Men may buy alcohol for women with the hope that they will lose control and want to have sex. 7
drunk story 21
DRUNK STORY 2
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • Why is the man forcing the woman to have sex against her will?
  • What could the woman have done to avoid being raped?
  • What do you think the result will be of the man forcing the woman to have sex?
  • Talking points:
  • Drunk men are more likely to rape women.
  • Women are more likely to be raped when they go to shebeens and bars.
  • Women are more likely to be infected with HIV from a man who rapes them since the men usually have had many sexual partners. 8
wife story 11
WIFE STORY 1
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • Why do men think they have the right to rape their wife or the woman they live with?
  • How does the man feel?
  • How does the woman feel?
  • What can be done to stop men from raping their wives or the women they live with?
  • Talking points:
  • Some men think they have the right to sex even if the woman doesn’t want it.
  • Abusing alcohol increases the chances a man will force his wife or the woman he lives with to have sex.
  • Rape is the ultimate insult to women and needs to stop.9
wife story 21
WIFE STORY 2
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • Describe the relationship between the man and woman?
  • What do you think the impact of the rape on their relationship will be?
  • Why is it women can feel powerless when they are sexually abused by the men they live with?
  • What can they do to improve their relationship?
  • Talking points:
  • Some men don’t realize how hurtful rape is to women.
  • Discussing openly and frankly how rape is hurtful, immoral and illegal is the first step to stopping it.
  • Women can discuss rape in their Churches or with 10 friends to gain confidence before discussing it with men.
teen story 11
TEEN STORY 1
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • Why is the boy offering small gifts to the girl?
  • Why is the girl refusing the gifts?
  • What can girls do to make sure that boys understand they are not interested in having sex?
  • Talking points:
  • Men and boys can give gifts to girls with the hope they will have sex with them.
  • Taking gifts can result in the girl being raped if the boy believes the girl owes him sex.
  • Though it maybe tempting to take gifts, refusing them reduces misunderstandings. 11
teen story 21
TEEN STORY 2
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • Why do you think the boy is forcing the girl to have sex?
  • What could the girl have done to avoid being raped?
  • How does she feel?
  • How does the boy feel about raping the girl?
  • Talking points:
  • Avoiding walking alone in secluded areas at night reduces the chances of being raped.
  • If girls are not strong and clear about refusing offers of sex, boys may think they want to and are just shy.
  • Boys need to understand rape is hurtful, immoral and illegal. 12
teen story 31
TEEN STORY 3
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • What are the advantages of talking about being raped with a trusted friend?
  • What can a trusted friend do to make their friend feel better?
  • What do you think will happen next?
  • Talking points:
  • As many as one in four women have been forced to have sex against their will in their life.
  • Most people know the person who rapes them.
  • It is best to talk about the rape experience rather than keep it inside.
  • Friends can help decide what should and can be done in response to the rape. 13
date story 11
DATE STORY 1
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • How does the man feel about the woman?
  • How does the woman feel about the man?
  • What do you think will happen next?
  • What kind of person makes a good potential boyfriend or girlfriend?
  • Talking points:
  • Finding a potential partner to love and trust is not easy.
  • Love sometimes blinds people from seeing what a person is really like. 14
date story 2
DATE STORY 2
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • What are the expectations of the girl in accepting to go on a date with the man?
  • What are the expectations of the man in asking the girl to go on a date?
  • What do you think will happen next?
  • Talking points:
  • Men and women may have different expectations.
  • It is best if the girl does not want to have sex on the date to make it clear from the start.
  • Men need to accept that girls should not be expected to have sex just because they accept to go on a date. 15
date story 31
DATE STORY 3
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • What is the girl thinking and feeling?
  • What is the man thinking and feeling?
  • What do you think of her kissing the man but still not wanting to have sex with him?
  • What do you think will happen next?
  • Talking points:
  • Men often see kissing as accepting to have sex.
  • Women should be avoid touching and kissing if they don’t intend to have sex.
  • Being clear and forceful when refusing sex is best. 16
date story 41
DATE STORY 4
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • Why is the man pulling the girl to the bedroom?
  • What is her reaction?
  • Why is it best to be absolutely firm when refusing sex?
  • What do you think will happen next?
  • Talking points:
  • Men often think girls who are resisting sex don’t want to be seen as being easy but really want sex.
  • Girls are better off avoiding going to the home of men they don’t know well and can trust. 17
date story 43
DATE STORY 4
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • What is the man thinking when he is forcing the girl to have sex?
  • How does the girl feel about being forced to have sex against her will?
  • What will be the result of the man raping her?
  • What do you think will happen next?
  • Talking points:
  • Sadly the man may not even be aware what he has done is very wrong and illegal.
  • The girl should not blame herself for what happened as the man has no right to force himself on her.
  • The girl should avoid future contact with the man. 18
date story 51
DATE STORY 5
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • What do you think the man will do now?
  • What do you think the girl should do now?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of going to the police?
  • What is the reaction of the police likely to be?
  • What things can the girl do to deal with how she feels?
  • Talking points:
  • Don’t keep the pain of rape inside and talk to a close friend or trusted family member about it.
  • Getting advice from social workers and other counsellors about going to the police makes sense. 19
date story 61
DATE STORY 6
  • What is happening in this picture?
  • Describe the relationship between the two woman?
  • How does it make the raped girl feel to talk about it with a close friend?
  • What advice would you give the girl if you were her friend?
  • Talking points:
  • Talking to trusted friends is the best thing to do after being sexually abused.
  • Friends can help what decide what the best thing to do about it is.
  • Men need to understand the impact of forcing a woman to have sex and that it is wrong. 20