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Commentary on Crowley. Chapter 7 Grammatical, Semantic and Lexical Change. Part I – Morphological Change. The world is full of variety, and grammatical systems are no exception. Morphological systems: Type A, B, C, D, ... Syntactic systems: Type A, B, C, D, .

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commentary on crowley

Commentary on Crowley

Chapter 7

Grammatical, Semantic and Lexical Change

the world is full of variety and grammatical systems are no exception
The world is full of variety, and grammatical systems are no exception.

Morphological systems: Type A, B, C, D, ...

Syntactic systems: Type A, B, C, D, ...

slide4
In Historical Linguistics, we study how such variety arises, and we find that each system evolves from another.

Typological Dance

A

D B

C

7 1 typology and grammatical change
7.1 Typology and Grammatical Change
  • Morphological types (4)
  • Accusative and ergative languages
  • Basic constituent order
  • Verb chains
morphological types
Morphological types

ISOLATING

INFLECTING AGGLUTINATING

POLYSYNTHETIC

morphological types1
Morphological types

ISOLATING

INFLECTING AGGLUTINATING

(The fourth type, polysynthetic, will be discussed later.)

morphological types2
Morphological types

ISOLATING

morphological reduction phonological reduction

INFLECTING AGGLUTINATING

morphologial fusion

english as isolating language
English as isolating language.
  • English: I already gave it to her. (six words)
  • Turkish: (one word easily divided into morphemes) =Agglutinating language
tagalog as mostly agglutinating language
Tagalog as (mostly) agglutinating language

Nakapagtataka. ‘Surprising’ (Tagalog Verb or Adjective)

taka ‘surprise’ (Noun)

ma- ‘happen to’; na- past tense of ‘happen to’

pag- class marker

CV- Reduplication (ta) ‘continuous aspect’

Note: the ma- na- replacement showing tense is inflectional, not agglutinative, since it involves morphological fusion.

Tagalog song: “Nakapagtataka”

latin as inflecting language
Latin as inflecting language

Marcellus amat Sophiam.

Sophiam Marcellus amat.

Amat Marcellus Sopham.

Sophiam amat Marcellus.

‘Marcus loves Sophia.’

english inflectional s as archaic residue
English inflectional –s as archaic residue

I like Ike.

You like Ike.

He/She likes Ike.

We like Ike.

You like Ike.

They like Ike.

has there ever been a more useless appendage in a language
Has there ever been a more useless appendage in a language?

She likes Ike.

-s expresses PERSON, NUMBER, TENSE, MOOD, VOICE

Likes represents the 3rd Person Singular Present Indicative Active form of the verb ‘like’

these categories survive in the verb to be which has to agree with the pronouns
These categories survive in the verb to be which has to ‘agree’ with the pronouns.

I am going. 1st Pers Sing Prog Indic (Active) (am+-ing).

You are going. 2nd Pers Prog Indic (Active) (are+-ing).

She is going. 3rd Pers Prog Indic (Active) (is+-ing).

We are going. 1st Pers Prog Indic (Active) (are+-ing).

You are going. 2nd Pers Prog Indic (Active) (are+-ing).

They are going. 3rd Pers Prog Indic (Active) (are+-ing).

these categories all survive in the verb to be which has to agree with the pronouns
These categories all survive in the verb to be which has to ‘agree’ with the pronouns.

I was evicted. 1st Pers Sing Past Indic Pass (am+-ed).

You were evicted. 2nd Pers Sing Past Indic Pass (are+-ed).

She was evicted. 3rd Pers Sing Past Indic Pass (is+-ed).

We were evicted. 1st Pers Plu Past Indic Pass (were+-ed).

You were evicted. 2nd Pers Plu Past Indic Pass (were+-ed).

They were evicted. 3rd Pers Plu Past Indic Pass (were+-ed).

the process of melanau becoming more isolating
The process of Melanau becoming more isolating.
  • Suffixes and most infixes were lost between PMP and PM.
  • As a result, PM became mostly an isolating language.
  • However, remnants of the earlier agglutinating system with a few inflections still remain as archaic residue.
tagalog is closer to pmp
Tagalog is closer to PMP

Tagalog is mostly agglutinating but is partly inflectional, e.g. mag- and pag- are difficult to ‘cut’ into morphemes.

Root bili ‘buy’

Active mag-bili ‘sell’

Passive pag-bil-hin ‘be sold’

Durative aspect pag-bi-bil-hin ‘being sold’

Completive aspect p-in-ag-bili-Ø ‘was sold’

Past progressive p-in-ag-bi-bili-Ø ‘was being sold’

like english melanau morphology is mostly isolating
Like English, Melanau morphology is (mostly) isolating.

Melanau ablaut corresponds to Tagalog inflectional infixes:

RootActivePassive(+Past)

Melanau: təbaŋ~tubaŋ~tibaŋ

PMP: *təbaŋ~*tuməbaŋ~*tinəbaŋin

The process of change involved syncope and cluster reduction affecting transitive verbs in Proto-Melanau: *tuməbaŋ > *tumbaŋ > *tubaŋ

*tinəbaŋ > *tinbaŋ > *tibaŋ

phonological change had morphological consequences
Phonological change had morphological consequences

We are confident about reconstructing this sequence of grammatical changes because the same changes affected simple roots, e.g.

PMP PM GLOSS

(96) *baqeRu > *baqRu > *baɁu ‘new’

(108) *tupelak > *tuplak > *tulak ‘push’

(281) *tuqelaŋ > *tuqlaŋ > *tulaŋ ‘bone’

melanau dialects are developing a periphrastic passive with k na h n
Melanau dialects are developing a ‘periphrastic passive’ with kəna[h,n]

4. ASHES

B: Talak idun kənah rusuk ŋan abaw puyan.

M: Sumek kənah usuk bak abo.

D: JaluɁ kənan bənərəsi pəbak dabo.

‘Dishes can be washed with kitchen ashes.’

Note that Dalat uses archaic infix -ən- together with paraphrastic passive marker kənan, revealing the likely path of change from a more inflecting to a more isolating language.

another example of grammatical change matu daro
Another example of grammatical change: Matu-Daro

64. GUTS/STOMACH

B: Usus siaw may kiman tənawan. -i- passive

‘not’

M-D: Nay siaw may kənah kəman tənawan. (paraphrastic)

‘not’

D: Sup siaw dəbəy kənan kiman tənawan. (mixed)

‘not’

‘Chicken entrails are not eaten by people.’

fourth morphological type polysynthetic languages
Fourth morphological type: Polysynthetic languages

I sat with the baby last night.  I baby sat last night.

I saw three owls.  I owl-saw thrice.

The term for this is INCORPORATION.

Incorporation fuses verb+object or verb+preposition.

verb preposition incorporation in indonesian
Verb-preposition incorporation in Indonesian

I sat in the chair.  I occupied the chair. (Lexical synonymy)

Saya dudukdi korsi  Saya men-duduk-i korsi. (Incorporation)

I sat in chair I occupied chair

I sent a letter to John  I sent John a letter. (Incorporation

signaled by word order)

Saya kirim surat kepada Jon  Saya kirim-i Jon surat. (Incorporation

I sent letter to John signaled morphologically)