Chapter 3 Gender Now. It Matters: The Biological Foundations of Gender. Sex is Not Gender Sex Gender. Biological Sex: The Foundation of Gender. Terms: Sexual reproduction Fertilization Sperm Ovum Homogametic sex Heterogametic sex. Male and Female. The Role of Sex Hormones
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Chapter 3 Gender Now
It Matters: The Biological Foundations of Gender • Sex is Not Gender • Sex • Gender
Biological Sex: The Foundation of Gender • Terms: • Sexual reproduction • Fertilization • Sperm • Ovum • Homogametic sex • Heterogametic sex
Male and Female • The Role of Sex Hormones • Estrogens • Progesterone • Androgens
Sex Differentiation in the Prenatal Brain • The role of androgen and estrogen receptors • Sex differential of the brain is dependent on the presence or absence of estradiol. • The conversion of androgen to estrogen in the prenatal brain is the underlying cause of brain sex differentiation.
Somewhere Between “Male” and “Female” • Terms: • Intersex/intersexual • Hermaphrodite • Female pseudohermaphrodite • Male pseudohermaphrodite
Turner Syndrome • One of two X chromosomes is absent • The dropped chromosome results in failure to develop ovaries, rendering her infertile • Affected females are often short, have learning delays, and heart, kidney and thyroid problems
Klinefelter Syndrome • Extra X chromosome is present, resulting in XXY pattern • Affecting 1 in 500 male births • Smaller-than-normal testes that produce no sperm • Affected males often have round body type, taller than brother/father, enlarged breasts, and little facial or body hair
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome • Characterized by an abnormality of the X chromosome • The gonads within the abdomen may be male, but the baby is born with feminized external genitalia
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) • Sex hormone disorder – external genitalia of genetic females are masculinized because of excessive androgens • Affects 1 in 13,000-16,000 people • Affected females have vagina, can have intercourse, and give birth
Sex Reassignment: “John/Joan” Case • Born male, Bruce Reimer underwent sex reassignment surgery and was raised as a girl. He later transitioned back to being a male, but ultimately killed himself at 38.
Current Medical Management • The Intersex Society of North America • Current medical protocol regarding ambiguous genitalia or intersex children is that gender assignment is based on DNA
Masculinity: “Doing” Male • Masculinity • Hegemonic Masculinity • Racial and Ethnic Differences: • The cool pose • Machismo
Femininity: “Doing” Female • Femininity • Racial and Ethnic Differences • Marianismo • Body Image • Changes across time
Gender Polarization: Complementary Opposites – or Inequality • Terms: • Gender stereotypes • Gender polarization/bipolar gender • Sexism • Gender inequality • Wage gap • Confidence gap
It Matters: Gender Identity • Gender Identity vs. Sexual Orientation • Androgyny • Transgender • Transsexual • Gender dysphoria • Sexual Reassignment Surgery • Transvestite
Sexual Life Education • Concluding Points