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Gravitation Newton’s Law of Gravitation; Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion. Lecture 14 Monday: 1 March 2004. Physical Principles of Design Forces and Motion. Learning to analyze and predict the motion of objects moving with constant accelerations.- Topics of kinematics, projectile motion ….

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gravitation newton s law of gravitation kepler s laws of planetary motion

GravitationNewton’s Law of Gravitation;Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion.

Lecture 14

Monday: 1 March 2004

physical principles of design forces and motion
Physical Principles of DesignForces and Motion
  • Learning to analyze and predict the motion of objects moving with constant accelerations.- Topics of kinematics, projectile motion ….
  • Coming to understand the causes of motions and changes in motion-topics of (linear and rotational) forces, momentum, energy…
  • Forces we have encountered:frictional force, normal force, applied forces of pushes/pulls, tension in strings, and the GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
how many different forces are there
How Many Different Forces are There?
  • All of the forces we have worked with or will work with are specific examples of following general types of forces:

The Fundamental Forces of Nature:

  • Gravitational Force
  • Electromagnetic Force
  • Strong Force (Nuclear)
  • Weak Force (Nuclear)
revisiting gravitational force
Revisiting Gravitational Force

More Specifically,

Where , is the acceleration due to the earth’s gravitational attraction.

It is not only the earth that attracts other objects.

Any object with mass will attract any other object with mass.

characteristics of the gravitational force
Characteristics of the Gravitational Force
  • The force is always attractive.
  • There is a Newton’s third law force pair involved.
  • It acts along a line connecting the centers of the two objects (called a Central Force)
  • It is inversely proportional to r2 (called a “one over r squared” force)
  • Experimental measurement show us that it is a conservative force (the gravitational force on earth is conservative-remember? This is a general expression of that same force)
potential energy
POTENTIAL ENERGY
  • Choose U = 0 at r = ¥
kepler s laws
KEPLER'S LAWS

1. The Law of Orbits: All planets move in elliptical orbits having the Sun at one focus.

2. The Law of Areas: A line joining any planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.

kepler s laws15
KEPLER'S LAWS

3. The Law of Periods: The square of the period of any planet about the Sun is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit.