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REACTION TYPES. REACTION TYPES. A quick review… Evidences of a chemical change: Production of light, heat, sound Absorption of heat (container gets cold) New color, new odor Appearance of a new substance. SELF TEST: True/False. T F F T T. Paper burning is a chemical change.

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reaction types1
REACTION TYPES

A quick review…

Evidences of a chemical change:

  • Production of light, heat, sound
  • Absorption of heat (container gets cold)
  • New color, new odor
  • Appearance of a new substance
self test true false
SELF TEST: True/False

T

F

F

T

T

  • Paper burning is a chemical change.
  • Salt dissolving in water is a chemical change.
  • Ice melting is a chemical change
  • Wood burning is a chemical change
  • Fruit rotting is a chemical change.
i chemical equations
I. CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

Defined

  • Are a condensed statement of facts about a chemical reaction

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

ii information in an equation
II. Information in an Equation
  • Reactants:
    • are all substances that exist before the reaction
    • are always located to the left of the arrow

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

ii information in an equation1
II. Information in an Equation
  • Products:
    • are all substances that exist after the reaction
    • are always located to the right of the arrow

2Na + 1Cl2 2NaCl

ii information in an equation2
II. Information in an Equation
  • Arrows:
    • Horizontal Arrows

Stand for yields or produces

2Na + 1Cl2 2NaCl

ii information in an equation3
II. Information in an Equation

HCl + Zn H2+ ZnCl2

  • Arrows:
    • Vertical Arrows

 indicates that the substance will leave the reaction as a gas(effervescence)

ii information in an equation4
II. Information in an Equation

AgNO3 + Zn Ag + Zn(NO3)2

  • Arrows:
    • Vertical Arrows

 indicates that the substance settles to the bottom of the solution as a solid

  • (precipitate is formed)
ii information in an equation5
II. Information in an Equation

H2(g) + O2(g) H2O(l)

D. Showing Phase:

(g) gas

(l) liquid

(s) solid

(aq) dissolved in H2O

slide11

2H2(g)+ 1O2(g)+ energy 2H2O(l)

F. Showing Energy Changes:

1.Endothermic Rx:

    • Absorb energy
    • Have + energy on reactant side
  • Exothermic Rx:
    • Release energy
    • Have + energy on product side
iii balanced equations
III. Balanced Equations

A. Obey the Law of Conservation of Matter

  • States:
  • Matter cannot be created or destroyed
b coefficients

2AlCl3

B. Coefficients
  • Are whole numbers that indicate how many atomsor mc of each substance are involved in the reaction
  • Are written in front of formulas
  • Are used to balance an eq.
iii balancing equations
III. Balancing Equations

C. General Rules for Balancing Eq.

1.Write the equations in ink balance in pencil.

2.Count the number of atoms of each element in the reactants and products.

3. Balance the elements one at a time by using coefficients.

Never change subscripts!

iii balancing equations1
III. Balancing Equations

D. Steps to Balancing an Eq.

1. Check for Diatomic Mc

H2 N2 O2

F2 Cl2 Br2 I2

if these elements appear by themselves in an equation,they must be written with the subscript 2

iii balancing equations2
III. Balancing Equations

D. Steps to Balancing an Eq.

2. Balance metals

3. Balance nonmetals

4. Balance oxygen

5. Balance hydrogen

6. Recount all atoms

7. If every coefficient will reduce, rewrite in the simplest whole-number ratio.

iii balancing equations3
III. Balancing Equations
  • Sample Problems

Cl2+ NaBr Br2 + NaCl

iii balancing equations4
III. Balancing Equations
  • Sample Problems

Al2(SO4)3 + CaCl2 AlCl3 + CaSO4

reaction types2
REACTION TYPES
  • Synthesis Reaction – a reaction of at least two substances that forms a new, more complex compound

A + B AB

2 Na + Cl2 2 NaCl

reaction types3
REACTION TYPES

2. Decomposition Reaction – a reaction in which one compound breaks into at least two products

AB  A + B

2 H2O  2 H2+ O2

reaction types4
REACTION TYPES

3. Combustion Reaction – a reaction in which a hydrocarbon and oxygen burn yielding the products carbon dioxide and water.

CH4+ 2O2 CO2+ 2H2O

reaction types5
REACTION TYPES

4. Single Displacement Reaction – a reaction in which atoms of one element take the place of atoms of another element in a compound.

AX+B BX + A

3 CuCl2+ 2 Al 2 AlCl3+ 3 Cu

reaction types single replacement
REACTION TYPESsingle replacement

Predict the products for the following:

* Pb + H3PO4

* Ca + H2O 

* F2 + KCl 

reaction types single replacement1
REACTION TYPESsingle replacement

Predict the products for the following:

* Pb + H3PO4H2 + Pb3(PO4)2

* Ca + H2O 

* F2 + KCl

reaction types single replacement2
REACTION TYPESsingle replacement

Predict the products for the following:

* 3Pb + 2H3PO43H2 + Pb3(PO4)2

* Ca + H2O 

* F2 + KCl

reaction types single replacement3
REACTION TYPESsingle replacement

Predict the products for the following:

* 3Pb + 2H3PO43H2 + Pb3(PO4)2

* Ca + H2O  Ca(OH)2 +H2

* F2 + KCl

reaction types single replacement4
REACTION TYPESsingle replacement

Predict the products for the following:

* 3Pb + 2H3PO43H2 + Pb3(PO4)2

* Ca + 2 H2O  Ca(OH)2 +H2

* F2 + KCl

reaction types single replacement5
REACTION TYPESsingle replacement

Predict the products for the following:

* 3Pb + 2H3PO43H2 + Pb3(PO4)2

* Ca + 2 H2O  Ca(OH)2 +H2

* F2 + KClKF + Cl2

reaction types single replacement6
REACTION TYPESsingle replacement

Predict the products for the following:

* 3Pb + 2H3PO43H2 + Pb3(PO4)2

* Ca + 2 H2O  Ca(OH)2 +H2

* F2 + 2KCl2 KF + Cl2

slide30

No, Ni is below Na

Yes, Li is above Zn

Yes, Al is above Cu

Yes, Fe is above Cu

We have looked at several reactions:

Fe + CuSO4  Cu + Fe2(SO4)3

Li + H2O  LiOH + H2

Such experiments reveal trends. The activity series ranks the relative reactivity of metals.

It allows us to predict if certain chemicals will undergo single displacement reactions when mixed: metals near the top are most reactive and will displace metals near the bottom.

Q: Which of these will react?

Fe + CuSO4 

Ni + NaCl 

Li + ZnCO3 

Al + CuCl2 

Cu + Fe2(SO4)3

NR (no reaction)

Zn + Li2CO3

Cu + AlCl3

reaction types6
REACTION TYPES

5. Double Displacement Reaction – a reaction in which new compounds are formed from the exchange of ions between two compounds.

AX + BY  AY + BX

Pb(NO3)2+ K2CrO4  PbCrO4+ 2 KNO3

reaction types double replacement
REACTION TYPESdouble replacement

Predict the products for the following:

Pb(NO3)2 + H3PO4

AgF + NiCl2

NaOH + CaBr2

reaction types double replacement1
REACTION TYPESdouble replacement

Predict the products for the following:

Pb(NO3)2 + H3PO4 HNO3 + Pb3(PO4)2

AgF + NiCl2

NaOH + CaBr2

reaction types double replacement2
REACTION TYPESdouble replacement

Predict the products for the following:

3Pb(NO3)2 + 2H3PO4 6HNO3 + Pb3(PO4)2

AgF + NiCl2

NaOH + CaBr2

reaction types double replacement3
REACTION TYPESdouble replacement

Predict the products for the following:

3Pb(NO3)2 + 2H3PO4 6HNO3 + Pb3(PO4)2

AgF + NiCl2 NiF2 + AgCl

NaOH + CaBr2

reaction types double replacement4
REACTION TYPESdouble replacement

Predict the products for the following:

3Pb(NO3)2 + 2H3PO4 6HNO3 + Pb3(PO4)2

2AgF + NiCl2 NiF2 + 2AgCl

NaOH + CaBr2

reaction types double replacement5
REACTION TYPESdouble replacement

Predict the products for the following:

3Pb(NO3)2 + 2H3PO4 6HNO3 + Pb3(PO4)2

2AgF + NiCl2 NiF2 + 2AgCl

NaOH + CaBr2 NaBr + Ca(OH)2

reaction types double replacement6
REACTION TYPESdouble replacement

Predict the products for the following:

3Pb(NO3)2 + 2H3PO4 6HNO3 + Pb3(PO4)2

2AgF + NiCl2 NiF2 + 2AgCl

2NaOH + CaBr2 2NaBr + Ca(OH)2

reaction types double replacement7
REACTION TYPESdouble replacement

Sometimes a double replacement reaction occurring in water will result in a precipitate. How would you predict whether a solid would form in a reaction? With a…

reaction types double replacement8
REACTION TYPESdouble replacement

Sometimes a double replacement reaction occurring in water will result in a precipitate. How would you predict whether a solid would form in a reaction? With a…

SOLUBILITY TABLE!!!

what s soluble and what ain t
What’s soluble and what ain’t!!!
  • Solubility rules that apply to water solution:
  • (1) All alkali metal and ammonium compounds are soluble.
  • (2) All acetate, perchlorate, chlorate, and nitrate compounds are soluble.
  • (3) Silver, lead, and mercury(I) compounds are insoluble.
  • (4) Chlorides, bromides, and iodides are soluble
what s soluble and what ain t1
What’s soluble and what ain’t!!!
  • (5) Carbonates, hydroxides, oxides, phosphates, silicates, and sulfides are insoluble.
  • (6) Sulfates are soluble except for calcium and barium.
  • These rules are to be applied in the order given.
reaction types7
REACTION TYPES

6. Neutralization Reaction – a special double replacement reaction in which an acid is combined with a base and yields water and a salt.

HCl+ NaOH NaCl+ H2O

HCl + NaOH  NaCl+ H2O