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Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics. David B. MacFarlane Assistant Director for EPP June 6, 2006. 2006. 2007. 2008. 2009. 2010. 2011. 2012. 2013. 2014. 2015. 2016. 2017. 2018. 2019. 2020. Data taking. Ongoing analysis. R&D. Construction.

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strategic overview for elementary particle physics

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

David B. MacFarlaneAssistant Director for EPP

June 6, 2006

summary of epp program elements

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Data taking

Ongoing analysis

R&D

Construction

Summary of EPP program elements

BABAR

Atlas

EXO-200

Full EXO

SiD

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

slide3

The BABAR Collaboration

11 Countries

80 Institutions

623 Physicists

Jawahery, Faccini

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

pillars of babar physics program
Pillars of BABAR physics program
  • Highly constrained and redundant set of precision tests of weak interactions in the Standard Model
  • Searches for physics beyond the Standard Model in a well understood & characterized environment
  • Full program of flavor physics/CP violation measurements will provide a legacy of fundamental constraints on future New Physics discoveries
  • Sensitivity to New Physics at LHC mass scales through rare decays and CP violation
  • Discovery potential from large data sample across a whole range of beauty, charm, tau, two-photon, ISR physics

Challenging measurements at the edge of sensitivity benefit enormously from operation of both PEP-II & KEK B Factories

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

integrated data sample to date

Project Run 5

at 415 fb-1 delivered

Integrated data sample to date

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

babar belle physics results
BABAR & Belle physics results

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

cpv in penguin modes

List of channels continues to expand…

CPV in Penguin Modes

Interference of suppressed

b®s Penguin decay with mixing

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

summary of sin 2 b in penguins

rKS

Dsin2b

Summary of sin(2b) in Penguins

Naïve2 Average: 0.50 ± 0.06 (2.8s)

Representative theory estimates

Example from recent calculations (QCD factorization)

2-body: [Beneke; PL B620, 143 (2005)]

3-body: [Cheng,Chua,Soni; PRD72, 094003 (2005)]

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

pep ii overall parameters and goals

40%

30%

10%

Factor 2!

PEP-II overall parameters and goals

Seeman

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

babar detector

Upgrades

Upgrades

BABAR Detector

EMC

6580 CsI(Tl) crystals

1.5T solenoid

e+(3.1GeV)

DIRC (PID)

144 quartz bars

11000 PMs

Drift Chamber

40 layers

e-(9GeV)

Silicon Vertex Tracker

5 layers, double sided strips

Instrumented Flux Return

Iron / Resistive Plate Chambers or Limited Streamer Tubes (muon / neutral hadrons)

Collaboration founded in 1993

Detector commissioned in 1999

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

projected data sample growth

Double again from 2006 to 2008

ICHEP08

  • PEP-II: IR-2 vacuum, 2xrf stations, BPM work, feedback systems
  • BABAR: LST installation

Double from 2004 to 2006

ICHEP06

4-month down for LCLS, PEP-II & BABAR

Projected data sample growth

20

Integrated Luminosity [fb-1]

17

12

Lpeak = 9x1033

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

how does this compare with kekb
How does this compare with KEKB?

KEKB from Oide

KEKB no crab effect (my guess)

Integrated Luminosity [fb-1]

PEP-II (Jun 06)

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

updated performance comparison

Typically better errors for BABAR despite larger Belle dataset

Normalized performance ratio

Updated performance comparison

Revised from 2005 results; conclusions unchanged from 2004 study

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

present and future ckm physics

2008: New CKM constraint & new physics limits

Present and future CKM physics

2008: ~2%

2008: 10o

2008: ~5%

2008: 5-10o

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

global ckm fit 2008

95% contours

Global CKM fit: 2008

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

babar summary
BABAR summary
  • Highest priority SLAC program with goal of 1 ab-1 or 109 BB pairs by Sep 2008
    • Remaining hardware upgrades to be completed in 2006
    • Performance and operational challenges of 2x1034 well understood and in hand
    • Computing and physics analysis framework mature & scalable
    • Computing hardware needs being addressed across a set of Tier A centers
  • Physics opportunities remain exciting & competitive
    • New ideas continue to be invented; factors of two in sample size do matter, as new thresholds are reached in sensitivity
    • Possible hints for new physics in penguin modes will be addressed with the 1 ab-1 sample
    • Precision flavor physics results will in any event represent a significant constraint on new physics in the era of the LHC

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

physics opportunities
Physics opportunities
  • Goal for 2005-2006: double current data set
    • Delay in Run 5 can be overcome by summer 2006 with extended running period, with substantial reduction in errors on CP violation asymmetries in rare decay modes
    • Error on average of Penguin modes should reach 0.06
  • Goal for 2007-2008: double again to ~1 ab-1
    • Individual Penguin modes with errors in range 0.06-0.12
    • Suite of fundamental Standard Model measurements with substantially improved levels of precision
  • Program will continue to be exciting and competitive through at least 2008
  • Sensitivity to New Physics through rare decays, CP violation, & large data sample with a significant discovery potential
  • Full program of flavor physics/CP violation measurements provide fundamental constraints on future New Physics discoveries

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

a concept for a 10 36 super b factory
A concept for a 1036 Super B Factory?

Strong physics case for a 1036 facility

Raimondi, Seeman

Transport

E+ source

Positrons

Make up DE

Gun

1 GeV

DR

5 GeV

3 GeV

3 GeV

Electrons

IP

Dump

  • Machine has significant technical overlap with ILC, including damping rings, acceleration sections, and final focus
  • Appears to be possible to reach 1036 with substantially smaller backgrounds, allowing (re-)use of existing detectors

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

possible element in alternative scenarios

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Data taking

Ongoing analysis

R&D

Construction

Possible element in alternative scenarios

BABAR

Offshore Super B

Atlas

LHC Upgrades

EXO-200

Full EXO

Delayed SiD

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

slide20

Su Dong

SLAC participation in Atlas

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

arguments for slac entry into atlas
Arguments for SLAC entry into Atlas
  • Allows exploitation of the physics synergy between LHC and ILC at the energy frontier
    • Direct involvement in both is best path to gaining a first-hand understanding of the full physics opportunity
    • ILC approval is now also tied to the initial outcome of LHC and its potential for new physics discovery
  • Responds to the needs of our user community
  • Experience in the operation of a new energy frontier facility by large collaborations is directly relevant for LCD
  • With completion of BABAR data taking in 2008 & construction approval of ILC in 2010 or beyond, there will be a significant gap of >7 years in our accelerator-based HEP program.
    • Joining LHC an obvious way of maintaining & developing a healthy work force for ILC, by continuing to attract the best young people to SLAC

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

slac areas of involvement
SLAC areas of involvement
  • With advice from ATLAS and US ATLAS managements, and many ATLAS US/Atlas users, identified 4 related areas of initial contribution:
    • Pixel detector commissioning and calibration, based on experience at Mark II, SLD, & BABAR
    • Higher level trigger, building on extensive SLD & BABAR expertise
    • Core and Atlas-specific GEANT4 simulation
    • Tier 2 computing center & eventually a west-coast physics center in partnership with LBNL, UCSC, and the larger Atlas user community
  • Roles are connected to each other, to our physics interests, and to our user community
  • Consistent with likely roles on ILC detector as well

All areas with unique strengths at SLAC matched to a national laboratory role

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

western tier 2 center proposal
Western Tier 2 center proposal
  • Proposing to be a premier Tier 2 center = simulation, calibration & detector studies, and physics analysis
    • Good data access and strong technical support is crucial for analysis
    • Proposal supported and developed in conjunction with LBNL, Arizona, UCSC, UCI, Oregon, Wisconsin Madison, & Washington
  • Will leverage existing & planned investments for BABAR
    • Investment level about 25% of typical BABAR computing needs
    • Proven management tools and scalable infrastructure
    • “Lights out” no operator 24x7 operation for last 10 years
    • Common CPU pool with BABAR can benefit both experiments by exploiting staggered peak usage
    • One incremental FTE systems/operations support person from Tier A; remainder of support directed to hardware purchases
  • SLAC, in partnership with LBNL & UCSC, will help support a vibrant west coast center for physics on Atlas
    • Many common interests in Atlas: pixel and inner detector tracking/alignment, trigger and event simulation, & physics analysis
    • User facilities exist to house many visitors on site
    • New mode for HEP that we are keen to develop with our users

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

very active hep theory group
Very active HEP theory group

Peskin

  • Broad range of research pursued
    • Strings: Silverstein, Kachru
    • Collider Phenomenology: Dixon, Hewett, Peskin
    • B phenomenology: Quinn
    • Hadron physics: Brodsky
    • Assistant Prof offer pending – model building
    • Possible additional appointment in next 5 years, along with additional KIPAC/theory billets
  • Well aligned with existing and future experimental programs
    • Have taken an important role in developing Atlas participation
    • Will provide leadership in West Coast Atlas physics effort centered at SLAC
  • Active postdoc program attracting top candidates
    • Vibrant element of SLAC’s particle physics community

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

ilc detector
ILC Detector

ILCDetector

ILC Detector

Jaros, Raubenheimer

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

lcd overall strategy
LCD overall strategy
  • Factors driving development timeline
    • Technical requirements require significant large-scale R&D to realize beyond state-of-the-art performance, e.g., from particle-flow calorimetry
    • GDE pursues an aggressive TDR goal by 2009
    • Scale of European R&D effort significantly larger: Need to increase US effort to maintain intellectual leadership consistent with EPP2010 report
  • Strive to develop coherent detector design SiD with US and international partners
    • Allows exploration of overall constraints and optimization
    • Key element is particle-flow calorimetry, requiring dense, highly segmented SiW electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry
    • Large magnetic field, compact tracking follow from cost considerations

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

slac leading silicon detector design study
SLAC leading Silicon Detector Design Study
  • Providing Computing/Simulation infrastructure for all SiD
  • Engaging collaborators at Fermilab, BNL, Argonne, many US Universities. Developing international ties (KEK, Tokyo, Annecy, Oxford)
  • Coordinating & pursuing detector R&D
    • Si/W calorimetry and KPiX ASIC
    • Tracker design/Si microstrips
    • CMOS pixels for vertex detector
  • Optimizing & benchmarking SiD Design

SiD detector outline document completed with 130 authors

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

ongoing r d goals for sid at slac
Ongoing R&D goals for SiD at SLAC
  • Ecal
    • KPiX, new Si sensors, prototype, beam test, mechanical design, proof of principle
  • Main Tracker
    • Tracker Si sensor, prototype sensor modules, beam test
  • Vertex Tracker
    • Evaluate performance, mechanical design (with FNAL), develop sensor
  • Reconstruction Code
    • Perfect particle-flow algorithm, tracking pattern recognition
  • Benchmarking/Analysis/Design Optimization
    • Detector performance requirements, new physics analyses, global optimization, subsystem optimization

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

expanding effort on sid
Expanding Effort on SiD
  • Present program is too small to maintain ambitious ILC timeline and leading role for US community
    • Initial startup of SLAC/Atlas effort presents near-term challenges for SiD effort, although symbiosis very healthy long-term
  • New SiD personnel allow us to mount ambitious program
    • Mechanical engineer, mechanical technician, computer support, postdoctoral researchers, simulation physicist, visitors
  • New SiD Si lab space tentatively identified
    • KPiX development, Sensor development
  • Additional SiD M&S would support proof of principle R&D as a key factor in overall design
    • PFA and high-performance calorimetry; compact silicon design
  • SLAC is a natural site to lead an ILC detector development effort with our user community
    • Engineering, construction facilities, computing & simulation infrastructure, test beams, a center for design and analysis activity, & established key areas of expertise

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

sid timeline

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Data taking

Ongoing analysis

R&D

Construction

SiD timeline

SiD

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

slide31

EXO: Enriched Xenon Observatory

Rowson

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

most important questions in neutrino physics

inverted

hierarchy

normal

hierarchy

Most important questions in neutrino physics
  • Neutrino flavor oscillations imply the neutrino has a finite mass, but do not give an absolute mass scale: what is the neutrino mass scale?
  • Are neutrinos are their own antiparticles (Majorana)?

Allowed hierarchy of mass differences and mixing angles

2n process occurs in the Standard model

0n process only proceeds if ’s are their own antiparticles (Majorana) andmassive

 For 0 decay, the rate ~ <m> 2.

~(1 – 4) meV normal hierarchy

~(15-60) meV inverted hierarchy

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

exo experimental strategy
EXO experimental strategy
  • Detect Standard Model 2n double beta decays
    • Use (liquid) xenon as source and detector
    • Xe136 is a relatively easy isotope to enrich – and – EXO has 200 Kg on campus!!
  • Developing background free next generation experiment
    • Rejecting 2 neutrino decay backgrounds:
      • Energy resolution in TPC using ionization and scintillation light
    • Rejecting external backgrounds:
      • Use radiologically quiet materials to build and shield apparatus
      • Locate apparatus in radiologically quiet area = deep underground salt deposit at WIPP
    • Turn experiment into coincidence experiment by detecting nuclear daughter of double beta decay of Xe136 to Ba136 (one single ion at a time!)

Unique feature of EXO

Identify event-by-event

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

exo 200 project
EXO-200 project
  • EXO-200 will use 200 kg of 80% enriched Xe136; it will not employ barium ion tagging.
  • The goals of the EXO-200 program are :
  • Test the LXe TPC operation : energy and spatial resolution, chemical purity issues, mechanical design and all backgrounds due to radioactivity and cosmic radiation.
  • Observe 2 decay in Xe136 for the first time and measure the rate of this important 0 background.
  • Confirm or refute the controversial claim of Klapdor et al. (Observation of 0 in Ge76 → a mass of ~0.4 eV).

Develop barium extraction and detection in a parallel R&D program

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

full exo neutrino mass sensitivity
Full EXO neutrino mass sensitivity

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

exo timeline

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Data taking

Ongoing analysis

R&D

Construction

EXO timeline

EXO-200

Full EXO

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

summary of epp program elements37

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Data taking

Ongoing analysis

R&D

Construction

Summary of EPP program elements

BABAR

Atlas

EXO-200

Full EXO

SiD

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics

summary of epp program
Summary of EPP program
  • An array of fundamental physics questions challenge our understanding of nature and the universe
    • EPP2010 maps out a strategy of leadership for the US program in addressing these questions
    • Central elements of this strategy are:
      • Full exploitation of the LHC
      • Development and eventually hosting of the ILC in the US
      • Pursuit of astroparticle experiments, a new round of coordinated neutrino experiments, and further exploration of precision flavor physics
  • SLAC EPP program is well aligned with these priorities
    • Actively planning a transition from onsite accelerator-based frontier research at BABAR to a portfolio involving major contributions to the international program at Atlas, SiD, and EXO, or potentially elsewhere
    • Science has and will continue to be the driver for this program, with SLAC continuing its role a strong partner and national user facility

Strategic Overview for Elementary Particle Physics