The Endocrine System.
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The pituitary, or hypophysis, is a small gland about the size of a cherry. It is located in a saddlelike depression of the sphenoid bone just posterior to the point where the optic nerves cross. It is surrounded by bone except where it connects with the hypothalamus of the brain by a stalk called the infundibulum
The hormones produced in the anterior pituitary are not released until chemical messengers called releasing hormones arrive from the hypothalamus. These releasing hormones travel to the anterior pituitary by way of a special type of circulatory pathway called a portal system. By this circulatory “detour,” some of the blood that leaves the hypothalamus travels to capillaries in the anterior pituitary before returning to the heart. As the blood circulates through the capillaries, it delivers the hormones that stimulate the release of anterior pituitary secretions.
Produces 6 different hormones:
Growth Hormone: also known as somatotropin or somatropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): also known as corticotropin, is often produced in response to biological stress. Its principal effects are increased production and release of corticosteroids
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone: FSH regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body. FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) act synergistically in reproduction. Specifically, an increase in FSH secretion by the anterior pituitary causes ovulation.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH): also known as lutropin. In females, an acute rise of LH ("LH surge") triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. In males, it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone. It acts synergistically with FSH.
Consist of 2 parts:
The Pancreas is the site of the Islets of Langerhans; endocrine cells within the pancreas that secrete 2 hormones essential for maintaining blood sugar levels:
The Ishihara Color Test is an example of a color perception test for red-green color deficiencies.