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Number 35. The plant hormone responsible for fruit ripening is (A) abscissic acid. (B) auxin . (C) cytokinin . (D) ethylene. (E) gibberellin . . Answer.

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number 35
Number 35

The plant hormone responsible for fruit ripening is

(A) abscissic acid.

(B) auxin.

(C) cytokinin.

(D) ethylene.

(E) gibberellin.

  • The correct answer is (D). Ethylene promotes the ripening of fruit and the production of flowers. Auxins promote the elongation of certain cells and helps in the growth of the plant, mainly in the tips of shoots and roots. Gibberellins promote cell growth and fruit development—not ripening—and seed development. Cytokinins stimulate cell division. Abscissic acid delays seed germination and bud development.

number 36
Number 36

In flowering plants, sperm are produced by the ______.

(A) ovary.

(B) anther.

(C) microsporangium.

(D) sporophyte.

(E) generative nucleus.


The correct answer is (B). The anther is associated with the production of sperm in flowering plants, but, more specifically, the structure more closely identified with sperm production in the anther is the generative nucleus. Sporophyterefers to dominant generation among the plant kingdom species and involves the entire organism. All other parts are associated with the female structures. The ovary is where the egg is produced and fertilized and will become the embryo; the megasporangium produces the mother spore cell in tracheophytes that leads to the production of the four haploid cells, one of which will become the egg; and the stigma is the place where pollen grains fall and ultimately grow a pollen tube to the ovary. It is supported by the stigma; both are female reproductive structures.

number 37
Number 37

Which of the following is not a type of plant stem?

(A) corm

(B) node

(C) rhizome

(D) tendril

(E) tuber

answer 37
Answer 37
  • The correct answer is (B). A node is a site on the stem where leaves attach—and unattach—at the end of the growing season. They are not, therefore, an example of a stem. Of the other items in the question, all of which are a type of stem, tendrils assist climbing plants as attachment points and tubers; rhizomes and corms are all examples of underground stems. Tubers store large amounts of starch, as in the potato; rhizomes are found in ferns and are involved in vegetative propagation; and corms are specialized leaves that can store food.

number 38
Number 38

How does plant cell cytokinesis differ from the animal cell cytokinesis during telophase?

  • plant cell forms cell plate
  • a cleavage furrow is evident
  • plant cell has a pair of centrioles
  • the set of chromosome is diploid


number 39
Number 39

The illustration above shows a growing seedling. Which of the following statements about the seedling is TRUE?

  • The seedling is exhibiting abscission.
  • The shoot is exhibiting positive phototropism.
  • The roots are exhibiting negative gravitropism
  • The seedling is exhibiting negative thigmotropism.

plant movement tropism
Plant Movement (tropism)

number 40
Number 40

Which of the following plant structures develops into a seed?

A. ovary C. ovule

B. anther D. stigma

number 41
Number 41

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the process of double fertilization in angiosperms?

  • Two pollen grains land on each stigma; thus, two ovules are fertilized.
  • Two sperm cells produced by a single pollen grain fertilize two separate ovules, resulting in the formation of two seeds.
  • One sperm cell from a single pollen grain fertilizes an egg cell to form a diploid zygote, while a second sperm cell from the same pollen grain combines with two fused nuclei in the embryo sac, resulting in the formation of a triploid endosperm nucleus.
  • One sperm cell from a single pollen grain fertilizes an egg cell to form a haploid zygote, while a second sperm cell from the same pollen grain combines with a single nucleus in the embryo sac, resulting in the formation of a diploid endosperm nucleus.
  • Two sperm cells from a single pollen grain fertilize the same egg cell to double the chance that fertilization will be successful


The correct answer is (C). When a pollen grain lands on the stigma of a compatible flower, it germinates to form a pollen tube that grows down through the style until it reaches the ovary. Two (haploid) sperm cells travel down the pollen tube and enter the ovule through an opening called the micropyle. One sperm cell fuses with the (haploid) egg cell to form a diploid zygote that divides mitotically and grows into the embryo. The other sperm cell fuses with the central cell of the embryo sac. The central cell is formed by the fusion of two haploid nuclei and is, therefore, diploid. Fusion of a sperm cell with the central cell results in the formation of a triploid cell, referred to as the endosperm nucleus, that divides mitotically to form triploid endosperm tissue, which serves as a nutritive source for the developing embryo.


collectively known as








Parts of a flower



(petals = corolla)


collectively known as




(sepals = calyx)








pollen grain

pollen tube

sperm nuclei

tube nucleus


mature microgametophyte



of anther


of anther



germinating seed













Life cycle of

an Angiosperm


one megaspore (n)



seed coat

mature embryo




shoot apex

endosperm (3n)






embryo (2n)

sperm nuclei


endosperm nuclei (3n)

tube nucleus

polar nuclei

zygote (2n)








Life cycle of

an Angiosperm

Sporophytic phase

Gametophytic generation

number 42
Number 42

The tissue that consists of long contractile cells (fibers) that are packed with microfilaments of actin and myosin is known as _____.

  • epithelial tissue
  • adipose tissue
  • fibrous connective tissue
  • nervous tissue
  • muscle tissue

number 43
Number 43

Tissue that lines the outer and inner surfaces of the body in protective sheets of tightly packed cells is known as _________

  • epithelial tissue
  • adipose tissue
  • fibrous connective tissue
  • nervous tissue
  • muscle tissue

number 44
Number 44

Blood entering the dorsal aorta has most recently been in the_____.

  • right atria
  • right ventricle
  • left atria
  • left ventricle
  • pulmonary vein

  • The correct answer is (D). The left side of the heart serves the systemic portion, the right side, the pulmonary. Blood is received in the atria and pumped out of the ventricles.

number 45
Number 45

Carbon dioxide that is leaving the body is carried in _____.

  • The plasma
  • Erythrocytes
  • Hemoglobin molecules
  • I only
  • II only
  • III only
  • I and II
  • I, II, and III

  • The correct answer is (E). About 7 percent of the carbon dioxide molecules are carried in the plasma as bicarbonate ions. The remainder is carried by erythrocytes, either bound to hemoglobin molecules carried therein as carbonic acid or bicarbonate ions.

number 46
Number 46

Carbohydrates digestion begins in the ________ with the action of the enzyme _________.

  • mouth, amylase
  • stomach, pepsin
  • stomach, chymotrypsin
  • small intestine, amylase
  • small intestine, cholecystokinin

  • The correct answer is (A). Salivary amylase breaks starches into simple sugars, which is why holding a cracker in your mouth for a short time makes it seem sweeter.

number 47
Number 47

Look at the drawing. Which of the following is the correct answer / label?

  • A=muscle; B=tendon;

C = ligament; D = Ulna

B. A=ligament; B = muscle;

C = radius; D = tendon

  • A=ligament; B=muscle;

C=ligament; D=radius

  • A=tendon; B = muscle;

C=ligament; D=radius

E. A=tendon; B=muscle;

C=ligament; D =ulna

number 48
Number 48

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A.FSH is produced in the ovaries and causes maturation of the folicles

B. LH is produced in the pituitary gland and causes ovulation.

C. Estrogen is produced in the anterior pituitary gland and causes the endometrium to thicken

D. Progesterone is produced in the posterior pituitary gland and causes the endometrium to thicken

E. None of the above statements are true.

  • The correct answer is (B). FSH and LH are produced in the pituitary.Estrogen and progesterone are produced in the ovaries.

number 49
Number 49

The human skin contains all of the following receptors EXCEPT

  • pain receptors
  • pressure receptors
  • thermoreceptors
  • chemoreceptors
  • touch receptors

  • The correct answer is (D). Humans have chemoreceptors in their noses and mouths.

number 50
Number 50

Which of the following is the specialized absorptive structure in the intestine?

(A) alveoli

(B) villi

  • Bowman’s capsule
  • salivary glands

(E) pyloric sphincter

  • The correct answer is (B). The alveoli are structures that allow the passage, not absorption, of carbon dioxide and oxygen into the lungs. Bowman’s capsule is where the filtration of the bloodoccurs in the nephrons of the kidney. Salivary glands produce amylase that helps begin the breakdown of carbohydrates in the mouth, and the pyloric sphincter is the valve-like structure at the end of the stomach that allows the passage of chyme. The villi are specialized, finger-shaped structures in the lower intestine that are designed for absorption of digested nutrients.

number 51
Number 51

Which is the CORRECT sequence for human circulation?

(A) heart—vein—capillary—artery—heart

(B) heart—artery—lung—vein—body systems—heart

(C) heart—artery—lungs—vein—heart—body systems

(D) body system—lungs—heart—vein—capillary—artery

(E) heart—artery—lungs—body systems—vein—heart

  • The correct answer is (C). While presented with a veritable hodgepodge of choices here—which just may occur on the exam—the only one that makes sense is choice (C), where the blood leaves the heart through an artery—Arteries Away—to the lungs, back to the heart through a vein, and from the heart, out to the body systems. Choice (A) looks good on the surface, except a vein is leaving the heart, not an artery. In choice (B), once the blood goes to the lungs, it goes right to the body systems, which erroneously bypasses the heart. Choice (D) also bypasses the heart as the blood returns from the body systems, and choice (E), like choice (B), bypasses the heart.

number 52
Number 52

The skeletal system does all of the following EXCEPT ______.

(A) support.

(B) transport.

(C) protect.

(D) digest.

(E) store.

  • The correct answer is (D). The skeletal system does not digest anything for the body. It stores minerals, such as calcium and phosphorous; it supports the body mass and also helps with transport of the body in concert with the muscles; and its cells reproduce and make more bone cells.

number 53
Number 53

The endocrine glands _________.

(A) secrete vitamins.

(B) cease functioning after adolescence.

(C) begin functioning in adolescence.

(D) have ducts.

(E) have no ducts.

  • The correct answer is (E). It is important to define endocrine glands as ductless—they offer a separate delivery system from gland to target area. The endocrine glands use the “ducts” of the circulatory system, also known as blood vessels. The exocrine glands, such as the salivary glands and the pancreas, have ducts. The endocrine glands begin functioning at parturition and continue to function throughout life. Finally, endocrine glands do not secrete vitamins.

number 54
Number 54

Which of the following enzymes acts on protein?

(A) pepsin

(B) ptyalin

(C) amylase

(D) maltase

(E) sucrase

  • The correct choice is (A). Choices (B) through (E) represent enzymes that act on carbohydrates, ptyalin being another name for amylase. Maltase and sucrase, as their names suggest, are enzymes that act, respectively, on maltose and sucrose. Choice (A) is protease that arises from a precursor, pepsinogen, that is activated by hydrochloric acid, which is the acid found in gastric juices a.

concepts to remember in endocrine system




  • prolactin
  • antidiuretic hormone
  • oxytocin
  • Insulin
  • parathyroid
  • melatonin
  • glucagon
  • Testosterone
  • Thymosin
  • growth hormone
  • Adrenaline
  • follicle-stimulating hormone
  • stimulates milk production
  • chemical signals that affect the behavior of other glands or tissues
  • stimulates uterine muscle contraction and release of milk by mammary glands
  • stimulates water reabsorption by kidneys
  • lowers blood glucose level and promotes formation of glycogen
  • stimulates male sex characteristics
  • stimulates production and maturation of T-lymphocytes
  • triggers sleep by peaking at night and causing drowsiness
  • raises blood glucose level
  • raises blood calcium level

number 55
Number 55
  • All are functions of the kidney EXCEPT ________.
  • regulating electrolyte balance
  • control of fluid balance
  • production of urine
  • bile production

number 56
Number 56

The structure that connects the right and left hemispheres of the brain is the ____________.

  • central sulcus
  • lateral fissure
  • corpus callosum
  • postcentralgyrus

number 57
Number 57

Which of the following controls heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration?

  • pons
  • Midbrain
  • cerebellum
  • medulla oblongata

number 58
Number 58

Which portion of an electrocardiogram tracing represents a ventricular depolarization?

A. T wave

B. QRS complex

C. SA node

D. P wave

number 59
Number 59

What is indicated by the P wave?

A. depolarization of the atria

B. depolarization of the ventricles

C. repolarization of the ventricles

D. repolarization of the atria

number 60
Number 60

Which of the following is the substance necessary for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland?

  • calcium
  • sodium
  • Iron
  • iodine

number 61
Number 61

What structure of the neuron carries information away from the nerve cell body?

  • dendrite
  • axon
  • interneurons
  • neuroglia

number 62
Number 62

Why is it the human chorionic gonadotropin released by the placenta is very important during gestation? Because it __________.

A. prevents contractions of the myometrium which may result in miscarriage

B. provides nutrients for the developing embryo

C. prepares the mammary glands for lactation

D. all of the above

number 63
Number 63
  • What happens to the positions of the diaphragm when the lungs are in normal inspiration?
    • relaxes and moves inferiorly
    • relaxes and moves superiorly

C. contracts and moves superiorly

D. contracts and moves inferiorly

number 64
Number 64
  • Which of the following germ layers is the origin of the nervous system, epidermis, epithelial lining of the oral cavity and rectum?
    • ectoderm
    • mesoderm
    • Endoderm
    • trophoblast

number 65
Number 65

Excessive amounts of glucose in the urine (greater than 1-3 mg per 100 mL of urine) may indicate what disorder?

  • diabetes insipidus
  • diabetes mellitus
  • bladder infection
  • urinary tract infection

number 66
Number 66

If you had 10 RBCs each containing 100 molecules of hemoglobin, how many molecules of oxygen could these RBCs transport?

  • 4 molecules of oxygen
  • 40 molecules of oxygen
  • 400 molecules of oxygen
  • 4,000 molecules of oxygen

number 67
Number 67

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?

  • The product of transcription is DNA
  • The product of transcription is mRNA
  • The product of transcription is a protein
  • The product of translation is mRNA
  • The product of translation is DNA