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Kagan, Ch. 23. Jewish Emancipation: A triumph of political liberalism. Early moves toward Equality. 1782 Edict of Toleration (Joseph II, Austria) 1789, France BUT…full emancipation NEVER ultimately occurred Often still subject to different property and tax laws

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early moves toward equality
Early moves toward Equality
  • 1782 Edict of Toleration (Joseph II, Austria)
  • 1789, France
  • BUT…full emancipation NEVER ultimately occurred
    • Often still subject to different property and tax laws
    • Social discrimination hardest to overcome
  • Russian Jews suffered the most
jewish life in western europe after 1848
Jewish Life in Western Europe after 1848
  • Full citizenship attained in Germany, Italy, Low Countries & Scandinavia
  • 1858 right to sit in Parliament
  • Full legal rights in Austro-Hungary, 1867
  • More job opportunities available
  • Openly participating and accepted in literary and cultural communities, the arts and music, sciences and education
  • Drawn to liberal and socialist political parties
rise of anti semitism
Rise of Anti-Semitism
  • Economic issues of the 1870s reenergized Jewish prejudices
  • 1880s (see also Kagan Ch. 24)
    • France, Dreyfus Affair
    • Austria, esp. Vienna (Mayor Karl Lueger) & Christian Socialists – was a major influence on Adolph Hitler
    • Germany – Houston Stewart Chamberlain & Adolph Stocker’s Christian Social Workers (see. Spiel. pg. 695)
    • Eastern Europe: 72% of world’s Jewish population lived in Russia and Ukraine; harsh quote systems and restrictions, also pogroms
      • 1903-1906: pogroms took place in ~700 towns & villages
rise of zionism see ch 24
Rise of Zionism (see Ch. 24)
  • Zionism: hope to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine (Israel) where Jews would be free and independent
    • Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) The Jewish State, 1896
    • First Zionist Congress, Switzerland, 1897: hoped to create a “home in Palestine secured by public law”
    • 1901, 1000 Jews emigrate; btw. 1904-1914, 3000 emigrate annually