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African Nationalism. Pan-African Movements. Pan-Africanism. Started in the 1920’s Wanted unity for all Africans Wanted unity of all people in the world of African descent. Pan-Africanism. By the beginning of World War One only Liberia and Ethiopia were not under imperialistic control.

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african nationalism

African Nationalism

Pan-African Movements

pan africanism
  • Started in the 1920’s
  • Wanted unity for all Africans
  • Wanted unity of all people in the world of African descent
pan africanism1
  • By the beginning of World War One only

Liberia and Ethiopia were not under imperialistic control.

  • Few African countries obtained independence until after World War Two.
  • Many Africans fought in WWII.
  • Africans resented being treated like 2nd class citizens.
  • Africans moved to cities and began to become exposed to nationalistic movements.
  • Africans wanted their own self-determination.
  • Known as the Gold Coast
  • Was a British Colony
kwame nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
  • Leader was Kwame Nkrumah who was educated in America and inspired by Gandhi.
  • Nkrumah used non violent protest such as boycotts and strikes to drive the British out.
  • In 1957 Britain gave Ghana it’s independence.
kwame nkrumah1
Kwame Nkrumah
  • Nkrumah becomes prime Minister and renames the Gold Coast to Ghana.
  • The name linked the new nation to it’s African past.
  • In 1963 Nkrumah creates the Organization of African Unity (OAU)
  • This organization promotes African unity and self-determination across Africa.
  • Leader for independence was Jomo Kenyatta.
  • Came from the Kibuyu nation which had been driven off their land.
  • Mau Mau Rebellion was a secret society of Kikuyu farmers that used violence to scare the British off their lands
  • Kenyatta was jailed by the British for not denouncing the Mau Mau Rebellion.
  • In 1963 Kenya gained it’s independence and Kenyatta was freed and became Prime Minister.
  • A French colony that had a million European settlers.
  • In the 1950’s a strong Muslim national movement began.
  • Fighting between the French and Algerian nationalist lasted from 1954 to 1962. (This was France’s Vietnam)
  • Public opinion in France was that Algeria should be free and in 1962 Algeria became a free nation.
problems with independence
Problems with Independence
  • During imperialism European nations set up export type economies.
    • Economies depended on the export of raw materials.

Cash Crops Raw materials

problems with independence1
Problems with Independence
  • Many African nations still relied on these export goods.
    • Problem
      • When no demand/prices fall/countries become poor.
problems with independence2
Problems with Independence
  • African nations relied on buying manufactured goods and had no industrial base.
problems with independence3
Problems with Independence
  • African nations have to import manufactured goods and incurred a large debt.
tribalism and nationalism
Tribalism and Nationalism
  • African boundaries had been set by imperialistic nations not African nations
    • Berlin Conference 1885.
tribalism and nationalism1
Tribalism and Nationalism
  • Many tribes and nations were split by these European boundaries.
  • Because of these splits there is more loyalty to one’s tribe then the country they live in.
  • In Nigeria this tribalism lead to a civil war.
  • More than 200 ethnic groups live within Nigeria.
  • During independence many of these tribes fought for control of the country.
  • The two main groups fighting for control were the
    • Muslim Hausa and Fulani people of the north
      • Vs.
    • Christian Ibo and Yoruba of the south
    • In 1966 20,000 Ibo were massacred by the Hausa controlled government.
    • In a several year period about 1 million people had been killed or starved to death.
    • Military leaders took control in the 70’s and 80’s
    • In 1999 Nigeria elected a civilian government.
obstacles to progress in africa
Obstacles to Progress in Africa
  • Population and Poverty
    • Population explosion
    • Widespread hunger
obstacles to progress in africa1
Obstacles to Progress in Africa
  • Political Problems
    • Power hungry and greedy leaders
    • Military takeovers
    • Harsh dictators
    • Ethnic and regional conflict.
obstacles to progress in africa2
Obstacles to Progress in Africa
  • Economic Dependence
    • Need for foreign aid
    • Need for imported goods
    • High debt
obstacles to progress in africa3
Obstacles to Progress in Africa
  • Land and Climate
    • Too much or too little rain
    • Poor soil
    • Tropical diseases
    • Desert climate
obstacles to progress in africa4
Obstacles to Progress in Africa
  • Economic Policies
    • Failed socialist economy
    • Cash crops instead of food crops
    • Lack of funding for rural areas.
africa s future
Africa’s Future
  • Africa shows great potential
    • Many African nations have moved from a socialist economy to a mixed economy
    • Mining for resources such a gold and diamonds
    • Countries have built factories to process both manufactured and agricultural goods.
    • Improvements in transportation and communications.
south africa

South Africa

End to Apartheid

  • Apartheid was a policy created by the white South African government in 1948, stated that the races (black and white) had to be separated.
  • The laws
    • Black Africans and other non-whites had to live in certain zones of the country.
    • There were separate trains, beaches, schools, restrooms and other areas for whites and non-whites.
    • Interracial marriages were banned.
  • Apartheid was similar to Jim Crow Laws of segregation in the United States.
  • Reasons for Apartheid
    • The government wanted to maintain control of both the government and economy.
    • Non-whites were not allowed to run for office or vote.
south africa1
South Africa
  • For 350 years South Africa had been ruled by either the Dutch or the British.
  • In 1910 Britain gave South Africa it’s independence.
  • At that time the whites held all the political and economic power in South Africa.
south africa2
South Africa
  • In 1912 the African National Congress (ANC) a black political party was formed.
  • The ANC was outlawed by the all white government.
  • The ANC stood out against apartheid.
south africa3
South Africa
  • The ANC used boycotts and nonviolent protest against the policies of South Africa.
  • The ANC tried to use legal means to bring about change, without success.
nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela
  • Mandela became one of the leaders of the ANC.
  • In 1960 during a peaceful protest and the protestors were fired on and 60 were killed. This was known as the Sharpeville Massacres.
  • Mandela then formed the “Spear of the Nation” movement. A violent movement against the South African government
  • The movement an underground military group that campaigned against apartheid.
nelson mandela1
Nelson Mandela
  • In 1964 Mandela was sentenced to life in prison when the ANC was banned and it’s leaders imprisoned.
  • Mandela became a symbol of freedom.
  • In 1990 Mandela was finally released from prison
  • In 1994 Mandela was elected President of South Africa.
south africa4
South Africa
  • Another leader who played a role in ending apartheid in South Africa were Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
  • Tutu along with other leaders were able to convince foreign nations to limit trade with South Africa.
  • The United Nations placed an arms embargo on South Africa.
  • The Olympic Committee banned athletes from participation
  • International businesses left South Africa
  • Musicians refused to play in Sun City and did benefit concerts for the blacks in South Africa.
  • The nonviolent protest began to have an effect on the economy of South Africa.
  • In 1989 F.W. de Klerk was elected President of South Africa and determined that reform was long past due.
  • de Klerk
    • legalized the ANC
    • Released Mandela
    • Created a new constitution ending segregation laws
    • Opened up free elections in 1994
south africa5
South Africa
  • In 1993 both Mandela and de Klerk won the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • In 1994 Mandela was elected President while de Klerk was elected Deputy.
south africa6
South Africa
  • Today there are still tensions in South Africa not only between blacks and whites but other ethnic groups.
south africa7
South Africa
  • In your small groups you must read the civil protest assignment and answer the questions that go along with the scenarios-First answer the question on your own and then discuss with the group
    • You need to be honest and realistic with your answers. It is safe to say that you would do or not do something in the safety of a classroom but you must take yourself out of the context of the classroom and into the world around you
  • On a piece of poster paper write out the answer that your group has come up with for each question
  • Finally you will pick one person to be a group spokesperson as to what your group would do with each question/scenario
truth and reconciliation commission
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  • The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid.
  • Anybody who felt they had been a victim of violence could come forward and be heard
  • Those who committed violence could also give testimony and request amnesty (freedom) from prosecution.
  • The TRC was a crucial component of the transition to full and free democracy in South Africa was generally regarded as very successful.