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Laplace-Ganymede lander mission. LANDERS FOR GALILEAN SATELLITES ZIGZAG HISTORY OF THE ENDEAVOUR. LEV ZELENYI and OLEG KORABLEV. 05 March , 2013. Missions to the Jupiter System I. VOYAGER !!!! Galileo (1989-2003) JUNO polar orbiter launched Aug.2011

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Landers for galilean satellites zigzag history of the endeavour

Laplace-Ganymede lander mission

LANDERS FOR GALILEAN SATELLITESZIGZAG HISTORY OF THE ENDEAVOUR

LEV ZELENYI and OLEG KORABLEV

05 March ,2013


Missions to the jupiter system i
Missions to the Jupiter System I

  • VOYAGER !!!!

  • Galileo (1989-2003)

  • JUNO polar orbiter launched Aug.2011

  • Since 1996: ~20 cancelled proposals:

    • Europa Orbiter (NASA 2002)

    • Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO, NASA 2005)

    • Jovian Europa Orbiter (JEO, ESA 2007)

      Around 2007:

  • NASA: Jupiter Europa orbiter mission (Flagship) + - SURFACE ELEMENT ??

  • ESA: Laplace (L-Class)


Missions to the jupiter system ii
Missions to the Jupiter System II

  • NASA: Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), planned to study Europa and Io.

  • ESA: Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), planned to study Ganymede and Callisto

  • JAXA: Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO), planned to study Jupiter's magnetosphere.

  • Roscosmos: Europa Lander, planned to land on Europa's surface for in situ studies.

EJSM Europa Jupiter System Mission : 2008


Landers for galilean satellites zigzag history of the endeavour

EUROPA LANDER

RUSSIAN SPACE AGENCY

RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

ICE COVER

“Without a surface element,

EJSM is just preparatory

for a very future mission

with goals really related

to ASTROBIOLOGY”

Olga Prieto-Ballesteros

Космос для человечества


Why lander
WHY LANDER ??

  • SOVIET EXPERIENCE IN SOFT LANDINGS

    (MOSTLY LAVOCHKIN ASSOCIATION ACHIEVMENTS)

1. MOON

  • first automatic return of lunar samples--3

  • first lunar rover -2

  • 2. MARS

  • -No successful landings

  • 3. VENUS !

  • FIRST AND LAST LANDINGS BY SOVIET VENERA”s

  • 4. Preparations for PHOBOS Landing


Landers for galilean satellites zigzag history of the endeavour

Luna 24

Luna 16, 20, 24


Venera 9 14 results t o look through the clouds to descend and to land
Venera9-14 resultsTo look through the clouds, to descend, and to land

Venera 9-10 measured the solar flux at the surface – the basic figure to calculate greenhouse. Nightglow spectra. 1975

  • Venera11-12 measured atmospheric spectra and fluxes down to the surface. Mass spectrometer showed an anomaly = in 36Ar/40Ar ratio, and measured the isotopes of neon.

    Gas-chromatographer measured CO and other minor constituents in the low atmosphere. Detection of electric activity; measurements of physical and chemical properties of clouds.

Спектры ИОАВ

Venus 11 dayside spectra

Colour panorama (Venera 13-14)


Laplace europa lander mission i
Laplace-Europa Lander mission (I):

Development:

2008: Preliminary assessment

2008: Initial industrial study 2008

2009: Europa Lander workshop 2009

2010: radiation load/scenario/landing site assessment; lander payload definition

2011: further scenario development; orbiter payload definition; payload accommodation

Mission architecture:

  • Europa lander, full mass 1210 kg, target 50 kg of mass for science

  • Telecom and science orbiter, 50 kg science payload

  • Multiple fly-bys of Ganimede, Callisto and Europa;

  • Final circular orbit around Europa with a height of 100 km;

  • Soft landing, target surface mission duration 60 days. Surface analysis by drilling (30 cm depth) possibly melting probe (<5 kg). Orbiter supports telecommunication. Optional TM directly to Earth via VLBI

  • Target total radiation dose <100kRad behind 5 g/cm2 Al (300 kRad tolerant components)

Roscosmos IKI TSNIIMASH Lavochkin Assoc


Laplace europa lander mission ii
Laplace-Europa Lander mission (II):

Resources:

  • 50 kg on the lander, including sample handling and (partially) radiation shield

  • 3.2 kbit/s via HGA to 70-m dishes

  • Lander data relay via orbiter

  • 50 kg on the orbiter, including (partially) radiation shield

Science Goals:

  • The main appeal of the present mission is search for life on or its signatures on Europa

    • Sample acquisition, concentration

    • Subsurface access

  • Establishing geophysical and chemical context

    • Biology-driven experiments should provide valuable information regardless of the biology results

  • Lander is to provide ground truth for remote measurements and enhance the detection limits

  • Orbiter: versatile remote observations; landing site characterization; Jupiter science

  • Proof-of-the-concept payloads

  • Lander:

  • 12 instruments  20 kg

  • 4-5 kg melting probe

  • Drill for 30-cm depth

  • Orbiter:

  • 6 instruments, incl. radioscience

Roscosmos IKI TSNIIMASH Lavochkin Assoc


From europa lander to ganymede lander
From Europa Lander to Ganymede Lander

  • An absolute need for the Orbiter for retranslation

  • No reconnaissance information on Europa because of NASA Europa Orbiter cancellation

  • Impossibility for the planned Russian 400-kg Europa Orbiter to fulfill both the reconnaissance and telecom functions

  • Moreover, 400-kg Europa Orbiter is incompatible with the telecom function only because of high radiation burden in orbit around Europa

     Ganymede Lander in coordination with ESA JUICE or a JOINT project with ESA

+

+


Ganymede lander play safe
Ganymede Lander: play safe !

  • Detailed reconnaissance from JUICE for choosing the Ganymede Lander landing site

  • Landing using ESA Visual Navigation system

  • Telecommunication via JUICE, if logistics permit

  • Dedicated small (?) Ganymede orbiter for telecommunication and limited science

+

+

+

+


Science objectives
Science objectives

  • Characterize Ganymede as planetary object including its habitability

  • Study the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants


1 why is ganymede an habitable world
1. Why is Ganymede an habitable world

Научные задачи: Обитаемость Солнечной системы

Why are Ganymede and Europa habitable worlds ?

Возможна ли жизнь на Европе и Ганимеде?

  • Необходимые составляющие

  • Жидкая вода

  • Элементы

  • Энергия

  • Время

The habitable zone is not restricted to the Earth’s orbit…

Surface/Deep habitats

Deep habitats

Deep habitats


Science objectives1
Science objectives

  • From direct search for life on Europa to determining the habitability of Ganymede

    • Establishing geophysical and chemical context for habitability

    • Lander is to provide the ground truth for remote measurements and enhance the detection limits

  • Orbiter:

    • Complement JUICE (2-points observations, etc)

    • High-resolution measurements of target areas

    • Others…


Europa lander model payload
Europa Lander model payload

20315g

Largely applicable to Ganymede?


Ganymede surface science
Ganymede surface science

  • A set of instruments on the Lander

    • Assume max mass of instruments and aux systems of 50 km to include:

      • instruments;

      • sampling device(s);

      • Deployment

      • Data handling

      • Radiation protection for instruments out of common compartment

  • Penetrator(s)


Landers for galilean satellites zigzag history of the endeavour

Landing scheme +IMPACTOR

2007 presentation


Penetrator s
Penetrator(s)?

  • To be released from the orbit

  • Mass 5-15 kg

  • Payload <2 kg


Orbiter payload
Orbiter payload

  • Reconnaissance

    • Full mapping from JUICE

    • Landing sites/target areas

    • WAC+HRC

    • What resolution required ? Meters ? (orbit not yet defined…) compare to JUICE final orbit (200 km polar), 5 µrad IFOV

  • Magnetometer

    • Boom of several meters!

  • Radioscience?

  • Some plasma instruments

  • Some optical instruments/ others JUICE losers

  • More info after the JUCIE selection

     To define requirements on the Orbiter


Thanks for attention
THANKS FOR ATTENTION)

Европа

Ио

Ганимед

Каллисто

Космос для человечества



Lander instruments systems
Lander instruments/systems

  • Set of context instruments

    • Panoramic camera (stereo, filters or color)

    • Various sensors (temperature, conductivity, radiation, etc)

  • Geophysical package

    • Seismometer

    • Magnetometer

  • Geochemistry

    • Contact (GCMS, Laser Ablation/Raman, XRD/XRS, …)

    • Sampling system: robotic arm

    • Remote (IR spectroscopy)


Sampling mechanisms
Sampling/mechanisms

  • Robotic arm with sampling device

    • Heritage: Phobos-Grunt, Luna-Resource

    • Mass: 3-5 kg (including commanding?)

    • Chomic-type perforator (mass-?)

    • Scoop/sampling cylinder (?)

    • Dedicated context and close-up cameras (mass ~ 500g)

    • APX-type instrument(s) (mass ~500 g)

  • Common sample preparation system for GCMS, laser ablation, XRD, etc ???

  • Mast for panoramic camera/IR spectrometer

    • Stereo camera (type Phobos, Space-X)

    • High-resolution camera (Type ExoMars)

    • IR spectrometer (type LIS, or ISEM

  • Magnetometer boom

  • No drilling on the lander


Geophysical package
Geophysical package

  • Seismometer

    • No need for a state-of-the-art Mars-type device

    • Two-axis

    • Lognonnee-type or Manukin-type?

    • Mass: <2 kg (?)

    • Deployment required or placement on the foot suffice?

    • To include tiltmeter?

  • Magnetometer

    • Keep mass within 1 kg

    • Deployment necessary!



Orbiter payload1
Orbiter payload

  • Reconnaissance

    • Full mapping from JUICE

    • Landing sites/target areas

    • WAC+HRC

    • What resolution required ? Meters ? (orbit not yet defined…) compare to JUICE final orbit (200 km polar), 5 µrad IFOV

  • Magnetometer

    • Boom of several meters!

  • Radioscience?

  • Some plasma instruments

  • Some optical instruments/ others JUICE losers

  • More info after the JUCIE selection

     To define requirements on the Orbiter