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The Model of Mobile Context of Use (MCU). People behind the model. Dr. Soc. Sc (sociology) Kalle Toiskallio Lic. Soc. Sc (social psychology) Sakari Tamminen M.Tech. Sc. (usability engineering) Heini Korpilahti M. Soc. Sc (social psychology) Salla Hari Prof. Marko Nieminen.

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the model of mobile context of use mcu

The Model of Mobile Context of Use (MCU)

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

people behind the model
People behind the model
  • Dr. Soc. Sc (sociology) Kalle Toiskallio
  • Lic. Soc. Sc (social psychology) Sakari Tamminen
  • M.Tech. Sc. (usability engineering) Heini Korpilahti
  • M. Soc. Sc (social psychology) Salla Hari
  • Prof. Marko Nieminen

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

the project 1 1 2002 30 6 2003
The project (1.1.2002 – 30.6.2003)
  • Alma Media + Solid Information Technology + C3i Solutions
  • Supports user-centred product development on its early stage
  • Main task: model of socio-spatial contexts of use

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

background 1 supporting standard definition
Background 1: supporting standard definition
  • Contributing mostly ”social environment” in International Standardization Organisation’s standard ISO 9241-11
    • 9241-11 = Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals. Part 11 = guidelines for specifying and measuring usability (definition:) effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use
    • In the standard Context of use refers rather concisely to ”user”, ”task”, ”equipment” and ”environment”

=> Mobix’s model of context of use gives 1) content for the definition of especially the ”environment” and 2) practical procedure for producing systematic data for product development in its early stages, for example so called ”use cases”

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

background 2 theoretical location
...Background 2: theoretical location
  • Context-aware computing within HCI research (according to Paul Dourish) includes two types of research
    • Type 1: constructively oriented line working with prototypes
    • Type 2: research developing interactive systems around understandings of the generally operative social processes surrounding everyday interaction

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

why mobile context is so difficult term
Why mobile context is so difficult term
  • Mobile context and mobility is difficult term because it is relational one. Users cannot understand the mobility as itself, it depends on context (or reference points). However, the context is not ready-made gate to be passed through (this particularly makes the handling of the term mobility so hard)

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

how do we create the mobile contexts
How do we create the Mobile contexts
  • Experiential contexts are created/interpreted with the help of several attributes. These attributes are also used to create other contexts.
    • MCU works also in analysing stationary use situations

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

starting points
Starting points
  • Macro but micro levels
    • Static/Macro frames: ”meeting”
    • Dynamic/Micro frames: presuppositions of atmosphere
  • Participants and activities themselves create interpretations we could call social contexts of use
  • Social + spatial factors of context of use are usually interwoven together

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

the model of context of use mcu includes
The Model of Context of Use (MCU) includes
  • The Context Attribute List. List of about 24 socio-spatial attributes
  • The Process Analysis. Iterative table for action process analysis

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

1 the context attribute list socio spatial attributes
1. The Context Attribute List(Socio-spatial attributes)
  • Main categories

A) User and social relations

B) Tasks and psychological factors

C) Environmental aspects

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

a user and social relations
A) User and social relations
  • social comparison
  • (presented) social identity
  • member vs. reference group
  • several simultaneous goals
  • intra- or inter-organisational tensions

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

example of a context attribute
Example of A Context Attribute

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

b tasks and psychological factors
B) Tasks and psychological factors
  • level of preparedness
  • frequent vs singular use
  • group vs individual use
  • single vs multi task
  • intensity and tempo of user (possibly as non-task based)
  • inner or outer motivation (to reach the goal)
  • level of habitualization
  • intensity of the task

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

c environmental aspects
C) Environmental aspects
  • traffic modes
  • level of publicity of the place
  • ”proper” use of the place
  • pre-suppositions of the place
  • visual/haptic environment
  • auditive env.: ”pluralistic”/”monoteistic” one
  • time tables (and time shifts in global scale)

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

the process analysis analysis framework for action processes in context
TheProcess AnalysisAnalysis-framework for action processes in context
  • The analysis frame has 1+6 viewpoints

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

starting point of the process analysis
Starting point of The Process Analysis
  • Description of observed (original) action (in column 3)
  • Goal: during the analysis, the action process is iterated towards a hypothetical, “best” possible process
  • In the following the meaning of the 7 viewpoints are declared

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

context attributes
Context attributes
  • Context attributes frame the recognizable states of actions
    • The Context Attribute List helps to

recognize the relevant attributes

      • Naturally, also case-specific attributes can be formulated
    • Other characteristic(s) of an event

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

context transition
Context transition
  • Context transition: describes transitions between phases of actions
  • Changes in phases of actions help to recognize contexts

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

transitory contexts
Transitory contexts
  • moving from member group to reference group
  • from single to multi use
  • changes in integrity
  • from one situational role to another
  • from a certain space to another kind of
  • changes in visual, haptic or informative environment
  • from single use to frequent use
  • from focused to diversified task
  • change of traffic mode
  • from accustomed use to unsure use

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

signal of change
Signal of change
  • Signals of change in interaction between users and system
  • Visible to both machine and user

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

signals visible only to the user
Signals visible only to the user
  • Visible and interpreted by user(s), but not available to the machine

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

signals to the system
Signals to the system
  • Not visible to user but device
  • visibility of signal-based logic to user

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

design notes
Design notes
  • Ideas created during the analysis process
  • Controversies in context signals visible to user and system
  • Design notes are then included into the next iteration of action proces
  • Design notes can be used when writing use cases and requirement specifications

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio

the iterative process of analysis
The iterative process of analysis
  • Realistic scenario/narrative/story representing synthesis of empirical (qualitative) data and retrospective experiences (first located in the column 3)
  • Analysing this scenario in column 3 by six viewpoints (attributes, transition, signals of change; to user; to system, and design notes)
  • After incorporation of these design ideas, second version of scenario can be written (conversing thus the previous scenario in column 3)

Dr. (Soc.Sc.) Kalle Toiskallio