Protected Territory: From what? From Whom?. What is a protected territory?. It is an area managed by the government to ensure that the forests, the wildlife, the marine life, the ecosystems, the landscapes and the seascapes are protected. What is a national park?.
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It is land that is protected because it is a natural heritage.
Natural heritage sites have little to no development*.
*Urban or commercial development is limited/lots of restrictions (i.e. no Wal-Marts!)
Sites are being preserved for future generations.
Ecosystems* are protected and constantly monitored by national agencies.
It is a community of animals, plants, insects, and micro-organisms that depend on each other for survival.
The World Conservation Union (IUCN) is an international organization that evaluates sites and recommends that a territory be protected.
Applications are made/approved by IUCN.
A) Land is developed by adding hiking trails, camp sites etc.
B) Regulations (rules) for each park are written.
Hunting, fishing and picking plants may be prohibited in some parks.
Located in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.
This park is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Has protected ecosystems/wildlife.
UNESCO stands for: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
The Galapagos Islands is on the IUCN?UNESCO World Heritage List
To make it on the list, a park must be considered a world heritage- natural and cultural treasures belonging to the world
Symbolizes a province or country
2. Extraordinary landscapes (Iguazu National park, Argentina-Brazil)
3. Rich and rare ecosystems (The Pontoons, Tlell River, Haida Gwaii, Northern BC)
4. Recreational and educational areas for visitors
5. Sites for admiring nature (inspiration)
6 IUCN?. Traces (evidence) of ancient human activities or societies (Mesa Verde National Park, U.S.A.).
7. Contain fossils or evidence of a natural phenomena (volcanic eruption).
8. Scientific research – plants used for medicine.
9. They provide economic benefits, such as tourist activities and jobs.
10. Symbol of our identity.
Charles Robert Darwin:
Located 1000 km off the west coast of Ecuador, South America.
Its an archipelago (13 large islands, 6 smaller islands, 107 rocks and islets).
Believed that first island formed between 5-10 million yrs ago.
Isabela and Fernandina are the youngest Islands that are still being formed.
Volcanic eruptions still occur!
Islands are aligned with the equator.
Islands are a long distance from Ecuador.
Closest land mass is the continent of South America.
The climate is unique:
The ocean currents around the islands affect the climate.
Larger islands have trees, while others are barren areas (no trees, hardened lava).
Two (2) main seasons: a cool dry season and a warm wet season.
Home to many endemic animals, plants, and insects.
Endemic means they are only found on those islands.
Laws were passed to protect these species by the Ecuadorian Government.
(i.e. $100 visitors fee)
The Galapagos Islands is a National Park
It’s a World Heritage Site!
The Charles Darwin Research Station was built (1964) on Santa Cruz island in Galapagos, and scientists now come from all over the world to study the plants and animals, and help to conserve them.
The ocean around the Galapagos Islands was made a Marine Reserve in 1998 to protect the marine life.
Illegal fishing/hunting or over-fishing/over-hunting.
2. Native animals (i.e. turtles) are competing with foreign animals (i.e. sheep) for the same food (plants).
3. Growing population on the islands (over 20,000 inhabitants).
4. Tourism (number of tourists visiting the Islands each year is growing – 60 000).
5. Pollution and littering Santa Cruz island in Galapagos, and scientists now come from all over the world to study the plants and animals, and help to conserve them.
David Pouilloux, a journalist, wrote a report on the degradation (deterioration) on the Galapagos Islands.
He entitled his report, “State of Emergency in the Galapagos Islands”.
This report outlines the five (5) reasons why the Galapagos Islands is being threatened in the 21st century.
The human population in the Galapagos Islands has risen to 20,000 today.
Due to immigration of Ecuadorians looking for better living conditions.
Possibility of jobs in tourism and commercial fishing.
Organised tourist cruises require fuel.
The presence of oil tankers and cruise ships have increased the risk of oil slicks.
In 2001, oil tanker Jessica ran aground on a sandbank close to san Cristobal and spilt over hundreds of thousands of litres of oil.
This polluted the waters and harmed marine life.
Galapagos fishers over-fish swordfish, tuna, shark, and sea cucumbers.
This occurs despite the fact that commerical fishing is forbidden by law.
Humans have introduced foreign species to the islands.
Native species are threatened by foreign species in two (2) ways:
Both are competing for the same food
Native species have become prey to foreign species (predators).
Most dangerous invaders are: goats, donkeys, pigs, dogs, cats, ants, wasps, black rats, and mice.
Approximately 70,000 tourists visit the islands per year.
They require entertainment and transport (fuel used to power boats and buses is harmful to the environment).
They walk among seabird eggs and disrupt their reproductions.
At sea, they throw plastic bags overboard.
Tortoises fatally mistake these bags for jellyfish and swallow them.
More garbage in residential areas.
To conserve nature, should we forbid people to live in protected areas?
Some people believe humans have a negative impact on ecosystems.
People should simply not be allowed to live in protected areas.
People can only destroy or deteriorate the environment by using up all of its resources, polluting its lakes, rivers, forests etc.
People simply get in the way of nature conservation.
People should be allowed to live in protected areas and participate in its conservation efforts.
Locals are in the best position to protect the environment because of their experience and knowledge.